Effect of Using Deferazirox on Hemoglobin Levels in Transfusion Dependent
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Effect of Using Deferazirox on Hemoglobin Levels in Transfusion Dependent β -Thalassemia Major Patients. AHMED KADHIM THALASSEMIA CENTER - DUBAI. Background.

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Effect of Using Deferazirox on Hemoglobin Levels in Transfusion Dependent β -Thalassemia Major Patients.

AHMED KADHIM

THALASSEMIA CENTER - DUBAI


Background
Background Transfusion Dependent

  • Iron chelating agents (desferroxamine and deferazirox) are mainly used to prevent the deleterious effect of iron overload resulted from repeated transfusions in thalassemia and other type of iron loading anemias.


Background1
Background Transfusion Dependent

  • The insight into the mechanism of iron and oxygen radicals poisoning extended the use of iron chelaters to conditions in which there is no iron overload, such as :-

  • antioxidant effect - as in rheumatoid arthritis and favism(2, 9,10),


Background2
Background Transfusion Dependent

  • antiproliferative effect (some solid tumors) & antiprotozoal effect (2)

  • aluminum intoxication as chelater (as in renal failure) (3)


Background3
Background Transfusion Dependent

  • Number of articles report an increase in erythropoiesis or a reduction in the transfusion requirement during iron chelation therapy. (1, 4, 6, 7, 9)

  • A variety if mechanisms are possible


Background4
Background Transfusion Dependent

  • Mechanisms

  • limited cytoreductive effect (4, 6)

  • iron redistribution to the haemopoietic tissue (1, 9)

  • ferrokinetic changes (4)

  • suppression of increased apoptosis and mitochondrial damage (4, 8)


Background5
Background Transfusion Dependent

  • Mechanisms (cont.)

  • in patients with renal failure desferroxamine and rHu Epo may increase transferrine receptors to enhance cellular uptake of iron. (3, 5)


Aim Transfusion Dependent

  • This study is conducted to evaluate the effect of using the oral iron chelater deferazirox (Exjade) on the hemoglobin level in thalassemia patients receiving regular blood transfusion in Dubai thalassemia center - UAE.


Material and methods
Material and Methods Transfusion Dependent

  • A retrospective study.

  • 135 B thalassemia major patients receiving regular blood transfusion every 3-4 weeks and taking Exjade as an iron chelater, started to be given in Sep. 2006.

  • 63 Desferal taking patients group used for comparison, during the same period of time.

  • Hemoglobin readings were collected from patients medical records, for the period Mar.-Aug. 2006 ( pre Exjade era - Pre) and Feb.-Jun. 2008 (post Exjade era –Post ), for both groups.


Material and methods1
Material and Methods Transfusion Dependent

  • Mean of 16 hemoglobin readings were calculated using Microsoft excel software.

  • Comparison between the means (pre- and post-) was done with T-test and p value calculated.


Material and methods2
Material and Methods Transfusion Dependent

  • As p value results were showing highly significant degrees, for the purpose of comparison these values giving a significance scale with color coding in order to make comparison easier, as in below

  • extremely sig.<=0.0000005,

  • very high sig.<=0.000005,

  • high sig.<=0.00005,

  • very sig.<=0.0005,

  • sig.<=0.005,

  • less sig.<=0.05,

  • non sig.>0.05. 


Material and methods3
Material and Methods Transfusion Dependent

  • Stratification of data had been done according to age groups, sex, serum Ferritin level, HCV status, and presence of complications like, hypoparathyroidisim, hypothyroidism, diabetes, hypogonadisim, cardiac dysfunction, and size of liver and spleen, and whether splenectomy done or not. (Maisem et. al. , unpublished data)


Results
Results Transfusion Dependent

Study Groups


Results1
Results Transfusion Dependent

Exjade Pat

Desferal Pat


Results2
Results Transfusion Dependent

Exjade Pat

Desferal Pat


Results3
Results Transfusion Dependent

Exjade Pat

Desferal Pat


Results4
Results Transfusion Dependent

Exjade Pat

Desferal Pat


Results5
Results Transfusion Dependent

Exjade Pat

Desferal Pat


Results6
Results Transfusion Dependent

Exjade Pat

Desferal Pat


Results7
Results Transfusion Dependent

Exjade Pat

Desferal Pat


Results8
Results Transfusion Dependent

Exjade Pat

Desferal Pat


Results9
Results Transfusion Dependent

Exjade Pat

Desferal Pat


Results10
Results Transfusion Dependent

Exjade Pat

Desferal Pat


Results11
Results Transfusion Dependent

Exjade Pat

Desferal Pat


Results12
Results Transfusion Dependent

Exjade Pat

Desferal Pat



Discussion
Discussion Transfusion Dependent

  • Despite absolute raise in Hb levels was more prominent in Desferal group (not sig.), it was the Exjade group that had the more significant P value between the pre- and post- means.

  • Sample size could explained this difference.

  • However knowing that subjects in both groups exposed to a similar conditions, an Exjade effect cannot be neglected.


Discussion1
Discussion Transfusion Dependent

  • All of the highly significant P values seen where complications are not present, an exception is found in HCV +ve and s. Ferritin >2000 patients in the Desferal group.

  • All the post Hb levels are higher than the pre Hb levels in both groups except Desferal taking splenectomized patients who are older in age and remnant splenic tissue may be responsible.


Discussion2
Discussion Transfusion Dependent

  • Younger patients had the best P values in both groups, those also had more reduction in their s.ferritin (Khawla et. al., unpublished data) when using Exjade, better compliance is a possible explanation.

  • Gender was not conclusive.

  • Smaller liver and spleen size was associated with a valuable P.


Discussion3
Discussion Transfusion Dependent

  • The mean, median and mode age for Desferal group were 2-3 yrs higher than that of Exjade group, this could be a partial contributor to the difference in P values.

  • The absolute raise in Hb level is clinically not significant (0.2-0.4 g/dl), however in a center serving more than 400 patients such raise may have an economic impact on blood supply to the center.


Conclusion
Conclusion Transfusion Dependent

  • Both groups had raise in their Hb levels.

  • Desferal raise was bigger, but not significant.

  • Exjade raise was more significant.

  • The raises are minute but may have effect on making better blood economy.

  • More studies are needed to prove or disprove effect of Exjade on Hb levels in transfusion dependent thalassemia patients.


THANK YOU Transfusion Dependent


Thanks to
Thanks To Transfusion Dependent

  • Dr. Khawla Belhoul

  • Dr. Maisem Baker

  • Dr. Hamid Al Qaissy

  • Miss Maitha Mohamed Hassan

  • Rashid Medical library staff.


References
References Transfusion Dependent

  • 1- Vreugdenhil G. ,Smeets M. ,Feelders R.A. et al. Iron chelators may enhance erythropoiesis by increasing iron delivery to haemopoietic tissue and erythropoietin response in iron-loading anemia. Acta Haematol 1993;89:57-60.

  • 2-Voest E.E ,Vreugdenhil G. ,Marx J.J .Iron-Chelating Agents in Non-Iron Overload Conditions. Ann Int Med. 1994; vol 120;6:490-499.

  • 3- Aucella F. ,Vigilante M. ,Scalzulli P. et. al. Desferrioxamine improves burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) proliferation in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998;13:1194-1199.

  • 4- Tucci A. A. ,Murru R. ,Alberti D. et. al. Correction of anemia in a transfusion-dependent patient with primary myelofibrosis receiving iron chelation therapy with deferasirox (Exjade ,ICL670).Eurep. J. of Haematol. Journal compilation 2007;78:540-542.

  • 5- Aucella F. ,Vigilante M. ,Scalzulli P. et. al. Synergistic effect of desferrioxamine and recombinant erythropoietin on erythroid precursos proliferation in chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999;14:1171-1175.


References1
References Transfusion Dependent

  • 6- P. D. ,Heickendorff L. ,Pedersen B. et.al. The effect of iron chelation on hemopoiesis in MDS patients with transfusional iron overload. B. J. of Haematol. 1996 ;92(2):288-299.

  • 7- Garma J. D. , Lago F. ,Fonrodona B. Deferrioxamine in the treatment of myelodysplastis syndroms. Haematologica. 1997 Sep-Oct;82(5):639-40.

  • 8- Marsh JH, Hundert M, Schulman P. Desferoxamine-indiced restoration of haematopoiesis in myelofibrosis secondary to myelodysplasia. Br J Haematol. 1990 Sep;76(1):148-9.

  • 9- Giordano N, Fioravanti A, Sancasciani S . et. al. Increased storage of iron and anemia in rheumatoid arthritis: usefulness of desferrioxamine. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984 Oct 13;289(6450):961-2.

  • 10- Ekert H, Rawlinson I. Deferoxamine and favism. N Engl J Med. 1985 May 9;312(19):1260.


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