Topic 2: Independent Africa How was independence realised in Africa in the 1960s and 1980s? . CONGO AND TANZANIA. Comparative Case Studies as examples to illustrate the political, economic, social and cultural successes and challenges in independent Africa: 1960-1980s.
Comparative Case Studies as examples to illustrate the political, economic, social and cultural successes and challenges in independent Africa: 1960-1980s.
(Comparative Essay Question)
Congo: supported by USA
1961: Gained independence from Britain – muti-party democracy
1962 – Nyerere became President
1963: Nyerere abolished all other political parties. TANU became the only legal party.
1964: Tanzania and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania
1967: Arusha Declaration - stated commitment to African Socialism – introduced ‘Leadership Code’ and Ujaama.
Attempted to remain non-aligned politically and avoid economic neo-colonialism.
Congo / Zaire
Julius Nyerere – 1961: 1st Prime Minister of independenet Tanganyika; President in 1962.
Leader of Tanganyikan African National Union (TANU).
Called ‘Mwalimu’ (teacher) – Remembered for his personal integrity.
Believed in pan-Africanism and equity. He rejected tribalism and opposed neo-colonialism.
He attempted to keep Tanzania non-aligned during Cold War.
Voluntarily retired in 1985
Adopted a socialist economic model (although Nyerere had to abandon this in the 1980s)
Attempted to remain economically independent and avoid neo-colonialism
Nyererebelieved that attempting to industrialse was a mistake. He introduced Ujaama, a villagisationpolicy aimed to make the country self-sufficient in terms of food
Nyerereattempted to prevent a new elite emerging with his ‘Leadership Code’
Clothing: inspired by ‘Maoist’ dress
Language: African-language departments and research centers were created in newly founded universities
Promotion of Kiswahili as a unifying language
Used education to promote a national ethos, ideology and philosophy, and principles of a new society embracing a concept of social justice;
‘Villagisation’: collective villages (managed by locals - inexperienced)