Nervous system
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Nervous System. The study of the structure and function of the nervous system is Neurology . Doctors who study it are called Neurologists . The basic unit of the nervous system is the Neuron which consists of two parts. The body(gray) matter which is called the Nerve Cell .

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Nervous system

Nervous System

  • The study of the structure and function of the nervous system is Neurology.

  • Doctors who study it are called Neurologists.


Nervous system

  • The basic unit of the nervous system is the Neuron which consists of two parts.

  • The body(gray) matter which is called the Nerve Cell.

  • And the long fibers extending from the body called the processes

    • Axons or Dendrites (white matter)


Nervous system

  • The central nervous system is often referred to as the Cerebro-Spinal System, and has 3 main functions

    • 1. Control Consciousness

    • 2. control the voluntary functions of the 5 senses

    • 3. control voluntary muscle actions


Nervous system

  • The nervous system is further divided into the:

    • 1. Autonomic: which consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems and controls the involuntary body functions.

    • 2. Peripheral: which carries messages to and from the CNS.


The nervous system has 3 principle parts

The nervous system has 3 principle parts:

  • 1. brain

  • 2. spinal cord

  • 3. Nerves


Nervous system

  • The brain is the control center of the body. It receives internal and external messages, and then responds by sending messages controlling the body’s activities.


The brain is divided into 3 parts each part controlling different activities

The brain is divided into 3 parts, each part controlling different activities

  • 1. Cerebrum:

    • The largest part.

      • Controls senses, thoughts, memory learning, voluntary muscles


Nervous system

1 Gyrus rectus

2 Superior frontal gyrus

3 Cingulategyrus

4 Cingulatesulcus

5 Paracentralsulcus

6 Central sulcus

7 Precuneus

8 Cuneus

9 Lingual gyrus


Nervous system

1 Frontal pole

2 Temporal pole

3 Olfactory tract & sulcus

4 Orbital gyri

5 Gyrus rectus

6 Inferior temporal sulcus

7 Inferior temporal gyrus

8 Occipitotemporalsulcus

9 Fusiformgyrus

10 Collateral sulcus

11 Lingual gyrus

12 Uncus

13 Calcarinesulcus


Nervous system

1 Central sulcus

2 Precentralgyrus

3 Postcentralgyrus

4 Precentralsulcus

5 Postcentralsulcus

6 Middle frontal gyrus

7 Superior frontal gyrus

8 Superior parietal lobule

9 Occipital gyri

10 Longitudinal fissure


Nervous system

  • 2. Cerebellum:

    • In the back of the brain

      • Controls body movements and balance


Nervous system

1 Cerebral peduncle

2 Basilar groove

3 Olive

4 Pyramid

5 Trigeminal nerve

6 Abducent nerve


Nervous system

  • 3. Medulla: (the smallest part)

    • Thick stalk at base of skull, connects brain to spinal cord.

      • Controls vital involuntary functions (breathing, digestion, heartbeat) , and sneezing and blinking.


Nervous system

1 Anterior median fissure

2 Olive

3 Pyramids

4 Cerebellum


The brain is covered by 3 meninges

The brain is covered by 3 Meninges

  • 1. Pia Mater: covers brain and spinal cord.

    • The first, innermost layer

  • 2. Dura Mater:

    • the outermost and toughest layer

  • 3. Arachnoid Mater

    • Middle layer, web like.


Nervous system

  • If the meninges become infected with a virus or bacteria, a serious condition called Meningitis results.


Nervous system

  • The spinal cord is the main passageway for the transmission of messages to and from all other parts of the body.

  • Nerves are long, white cords made of cell processes that carry messages from one part of the body to another.


Nerves are divided into 3 types

Nerves are divided into 3 types

  • 1. Sensory (aka Afferent)

    • Carries messages to brain from sense organs

  • 2. Motor (aka efferent)

    • Carries messages from brain to muscle

  • 3. Mixed

    • Combination of sensory and motor nerves


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