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Nervous System. The study of the structure and function of the nervous system is Neurology . Doctors who study it are called Neurologists . The basic unit of the nervous system is the Neuron which consists of two parts. The body(gray) matter which is called the Nerve Cell .

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nervous system
Nervous System
  • The study of the structure and function of the nervous system is Neurology.
  • Doctors who study it are called Neurologists.
slide2

The basic unit of the nervous system is the Neuron which consists of two parts.

  • The body(gray) matter which is called the Nerve Cell.
  • And the long fibers extending from the body called the processes
    • Axons or Dendrites (white matter)
slide4

The central nervous system is often referred to as the Cerebro-Spinal System, and has 3 main functions

    • 1. Control Consciousness
    • 2. control the voluntary functions of the 5 senses
    • 3. control voluntary muscle actions
slide5

The nervous system is further divided into the:

    • 1. Autonomic: which consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems and controls the involuntary body functions.
    • 2. Peripheral: which carries messages to and from the CNS.
the nervous system has 3 principle parts
The nervous system has 3 principle parts:
  • 1. brain
  • 2. spinal cord
  • 3. Nerves
slide7

The brain is the control center of the body. It receives internal and external messages, and then responds by sending messages controlling the body’s activities.

the brain is divided into 3 parts each part controlling different activities
The brain is divided into 3 parts, each part controlling different activities
  • 1. Cerebrum:
    • The largest part.
      • Controls senses, thoughts, memory learning, voluntary muscles
slide9

1 Gyrus rectus

2 Superior frontal gyrus

3 Cingulategyrus

4 Cingulatesulcus

5 Paracentralsulcus

6 Central sulcus

7 Precuneus

8 Cuneus

9 Lingual gyrus

slide10

1 Frontal pole

2 Temporal pole

3 Olfactory tract & sulcus

4 Orbital gyri

5 Gyrus rectus

6 Inferior temporal sulcus

7 Inferior temporal gyrus

8 Occipitotemporalsulcus

9 Fusiformgyrus

10 Collateral sulcus

11 Lingual gyrus

12 Uncus

13 Calcarinesulcus

slide11

1 Central sulcus

2 Precentralgyrus

3 Postcentralgyrus

4 Precentralsulcus

5 Postcentralsulcus

6 Middle frontal gyrus

7 Superior frontal gyrus

8 Superior parietal lobule

9 Occipital gyri

10 Longitudinal fissure

slide12

2. Cerebellum:

    • In the back of the brain
      • Controls body movements and balance
slide13

1 Cerebral peduncle

2 Basilar groove

3 Olive

4 Pyramid

5 Trigeminal nerve

6 Abducent nerve

slide14

3. Medulla: (the smallest part)

    • Thick stalk at base of skull, connects brain to spinal cord.
      • Controls vital involuntary functions (breathing, digestion, heartbeat) , and sneezing and blinking.
slide15

1 Anterior median fissure

2 Olive

3 Pyramids

4 Cerebellum

the brain is covered by 3 meninges
The brain is covered by 3 Meninges
  • 1. Pia Mater: covers brain and spinal cord.
    • The first, innermost layer
  • 2. Dura Mater:
    • the outermost and toughest layer
  • 3. Arachnoid Mater
    • Middle layer, web like.
slide20

If the meninges become infected with a virus or bacteria, a serious condition called Meningitis results.

slide21

The spinal cord is the main passageway for the transmission of messages to and from all other parts of the body.

  • Nerves are long, white cords made of cell processes that carry messages from one part of the body to another.
nerves are divided into 3 types
Nerves are divided into 3 types
  • 1. Sensory (aka Afferent)
    • Carries messages to brain from sense organs
  • 2. Motor (aka efferent)
    • Carries messages from brain to muscle
  • 3. Mixed
    • Combination of sensory and motor nerves
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