A lead monoxide precursor of high surface area for lead acid battery paste
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A Lead Monoxide Precursor of High Surface-Area for Lead-Acid Battery Paste. R Vasant Kumar Department of Materials Science University of Cambridge, UK. Acknowledgements.

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A lead monoxide precursor of high surface area for lead acid battery paste

A Lead Monoxide Precursor of High Surface-Area for Lead-Acid Battery Paste

R Vasant Kumar

Department of Materials Science

University of Cambridge, UK


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements Battery Paste

  • Seref Sonmez, Vega Kotzeva, Jiakuan Yang, Lilia Sanchez, Richard Darby, Yingjun Liu, David Zou, of Department of Materials Science

  • Lei Wang, Nigel Williams of the Business School

  • Maggie Wilkinson & Zlatka Stoeva of Cambridge Enterprise




Current Method - Pyrometallurgy Battery Paste

*For 10,000 tpy plant

Capital: $4-5M

Energy: 14,000MWH

*Independent Consultants


Battery manufacture
Battery Manufacture Battery Paste

  • Lead is then chemically oxidised to PbO for the battery industry

  • PbO is electrochemically reduced to Pb and oxidised to PbO2 to make anode and cathode


A new process for recycling lead battery waste Battery Paste

Special Leaching/Crystallization Process

Waste

Battery

Paste

Lead Battery

Combustion/

Calcination

Process

Manufacturing Lead Battery

New Paste

Patent: PCT/GB2007/

004222; WO2008/056125

RV Kumar, S Sonmez and V Kotzeva


A new process for recycling lead battery waste Battery Paste

Paste

Waste

Battery

Pb Grid

Heat Energy from paste

recycling

Kettle

New lead

Battery

New Grid

New Paste directly from paste recycling


Green PB Recycling Process Battery Paste

Spent

Lead grid

Leaching

Combustion-Calcination

Energy

Metallic

Lead

Patent: PCT/GB2007/

004222; WO2008/056125

RV Kumar, S Sonmez, V Kotzeva


Leaching of battery paste PbO and PbO Battery Paste2

Ratio of

Paste/

reagent




Lead organic crystallites of from

Lead citrate (A) from PbO and PbO2






Mixture of fromα and β PbO and metallic Pb – can be controlled

to varying ratios


Heat produced
Heat Produced from

  • Combustion-calcination of lead citrates can generate thermal energy of 2 kJ/ g of lead battery paste

  • The Raceway Adiabatic Flame Temperature is over 1500K!

  • This energy is equivalent to 550 kWh/kg of paste!



Agglomerated PbO from

Spongy PbO

Skeletal PbO





Physical properties of pbo
Physical Properties of PbO from

  • Free Pb: 0 to 20 %

  • Crystal structure: α/β ratio: 0.05 to 1

  • Crystal size: 20 – 100 nm

  • Particle average size: 1 – 5 μm

  • Specific surface area (BET) m2/g: 2.4 to 5.5

  • Acid absorption (mg H2SO4/ g oxide): 270 – 530


Preliminary electrochemical testing
Preliminary Electrochemical Testing from

  • First discharge capacity in the 130 – 160 mAh/g of PbO

  • Increase in discharge capacity with no of cycles up to 8-10 cycles and then remained constant to 50 cycles

  • Further work is ongoing

C

B

D

E

A

A: PbO /PbSO4 reduction to Pb

B: Pb oxidation to PbSO4

C: PbSO4 oxidation to PbO2

D: PbO2 reduction to PbSO4

E: PbSO4 reduction to Pb


The Green PB Process from

5000 MWh

Energy

available

For 10,000 tpy plant

Capital: $1-1.5 M

Energy: 1750 MWH


Conclusions
Conclusions from

  • New method for directly recovering PbO from spent battery paste

  • Many control variables available to vary physical properties of PbO product

  • Promising preliminary results

  • Thank You


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