PUBH 8002. A SYNTHESIZED PUBLIC HEALTH STUDIES. 1QTR.WK1-11 FINAL PROJECT: NWABUIBE, Collins.doc PRESENTATION November 11, 2013. What Is Public Health?
What Is Public Health?
Public Health has been described as the science and art of Protecting and improving the health of community through education, promotion of healthy lifestyle, and research for disease and injury prevention. Public Health helps improve the and well-being of people in local communities and around the globe. PH works to prevent health problems before they occur
Winslow (1920),describes it as “ the science and art of preventing life, and promoting physical health and efficiency through organized community efforts for the sanitation of the environment, the control of community infections, the education of the individual in principles of personal hygiene, the organization of medical and nursing services for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease, and the development of the social machinery which will ensure to every individual in the community a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health”
Turnock (2001), later described public health as the “ collective effort to identify and address the unacceptable and realities that result in preventable and avoidable health outcomes, and it is the composite of efforts and activities carried out by people committed to these ends”
Institute of Medicine (1988), offered a condensed definition of public health as “ fulfilling society’s interest in assuring conditions in which people can be healthy, “,
WHO , Public Health refers to all organized measures ( whether public or private) to prevent disease, promote health and prolong life among the population as a whole. Its activities aim to provide conditions in which people can be healthy and focus on entire populations, not on individual patients or diseases
The three main functions of public health are
The assessment and monitoring the health of communities and populations at risk to identify health problems and priorities
The formation of public policies designed to solve identified local and national health problems and priorities
To ensure that all populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective care, including health promotion and disease prevention services.
( e.g. , guidelines and strategies in preventing HIV/AIDS)
In the US,
In sum, the average life expectancy for Americans has increased by about 30 years since 1900.
Introduction-Public health services (interventions) have propensity to be embroiled in controversies, very engrossing and can hardly be settled once and for all to everybody’s satisfaction.
The Controversies- People take position when Public Health debate is on, especially among the expert who refuse to part away their stands-on of methods of intervention, application, regulations or management/implementation part of it on human populations ( e.g., structural issues and other factors such as economics, politics, the values of individuals liberty, religion and morals, and cultural context as the key issues) The role of these factors and other structural factors such as stigma and discrimination associated with HIV/AIDS also diminishes public health responses to the (HIV/AIDS vulnerability) development of policies and decision making and response in prevention and control ( Malikhoa, 2006)
The public health workforce has frequently been defined as those individuals employed by local, state, and Federal government health agencies for the purpose to improve health outcomes by enhancing the training, skills, and performance of public health workers. For purpose of this discussion, individuals in academia who educate, train, or perform research in public health should be considered part of the public health workforce responsible for providing the services identified in the Public Health in America statement regardless of the organization in which they work (Evans & Stoddard, 1994)
Method Used by MMWR in investigating Disease outbreak such as Tuberculosis (TB), include- Index Patient, and Chest Radiography
In this topic we discussed- A Historic Prevalence and Distribution of Avian A(H7N9) among wild bird
According to Olson, et al, (Feb.2013), revealed in their studies of Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Birds in China of infections of the disease, and the researchers identified Chains of Infection and the links in the distribution of the diseases. Also, Chen, et al, (2011), in their studies of the A(H7N9) virus prevalence, after reviewing GenBank data, revealed that humans were infected by domestic birds. The out break of the and the impact on environment and humans were devastating that Public Health officials took notice and began investigation on the pattern or factors that enhances the spread of the infectious disease. According to WHO ( 2012), infectious diseases are emerging more, and prevalence in distribution of influenza virus infections which attracted Public health prevention and control measures (e.g., SARS and Pandemic Influenza in H1N1 in Canada)
( e. g.. New York City’s Health Bucks Program explored and implemented by Public Health in Preventing Chronic Disease developments in humans).
These measures include,
(e. g., Immunization are probably the most effective primary prevention of diseases), and/or health education promoting the use of condoms to prevent HIV/AIDS, infections.
State type % of % of state % of state population % of state population % of state population with .
state population population with with 100% smokefree with 100% smokefree any 100% smokefree .
of laws with 100% 100% smokefree bar laws non-hospitality laws .
laws smokefree restaurant laws workplace & restaurant .
non-hospitality & bar laws .
GA State 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% .
GA Local 12% 6.1% 3.5% 2.3% 15.9% .
Source: [email protected]
Florida Public Health Review, 2004; 1: 24-29. School Health is Public Health.
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WHO ( 2013), Public Health: Trade, foreign policy, diplomacy and health.
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Chave, ( 1998, Fee, 1187) A History of the Public Health. Retrieved from, www.nap.edu/openbook.php?
Public Health Core Functions and Community Health Planning; August 1, 2010. Administrative
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http://dr.doi.org/10.5888/pcd9.110324 Updated July 2012. retrieved from, www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/
MMWR. Series: Weekly. Vol.6 no.39. Published October 4, 2013
Public Health Agency of Canada Responding to an Infectious Disease Outbreak: Process Between SARS and
Pandemic Influenza (H1N1). Date Modfied:2012-4-11. Published Public Health Agency of Canada.
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