Revolutions of the 1820s-1840s. Congress of Vienna. 1814-1815 to reorganize Europe after Napoleon Metternich (Austria), Russia (Alexander I), Prussia, Great Britain France has limited role Spain, and other small nations would have no role in decision making. Congress of Vienna.
Balance of Power: preserved until the unification of Germany in 1870-71
No continental war again until WWI
The principle of collective security was established.
Protect against another Napoleon.
Maintain Balance of Power
19th Century Conservatism
Conservatism arose in reaction to liberalism
Natural Rights lead only to Chaos
Old monarchies were re-established (Austria, Prussia, France)
Opposed freedom of press and protest movements
Conservatives believed in order, society and the state, faith, and tradition.
“All people benefit from peace and stability”
The only legitimate sources of political authority were God and history.
Inspired by Enlightenment and French Revolution
Led revolts against Conservatives throughout Europe
Against divine-right monarchies, church power, old aristocracy
Must protect basic rightsLiberalism
Revolutionary Movements in the Early 19th Century
Greece on the Ruins of Missilonghi by Delacroix, 1827
Represents the birth of the Greek Independence movement
Russian upper class had come into contact with western liberal ideas during the Napoleonic Wars.
Late November, 1825: Czar Alexander I died suddenly.
France was the most liberal nation in Europe
Louis XVIII: forced to rule as a Constitutional monarch.
Count of Artois: leader of “Ultra-Royalists”
1815 “White Terror”
The Count of Artoisthe future King Charles X (r. 1824-1830)
1820: son of Artois was murdered.
Royalists blamed leftists (liberals)
Louis XVIII moved the govt. more to the right
1830 Election brought in another liberal majority.
1830: Revolution, Again!
Louis Philippe The “Citizen King”
Government under the control of the wealthy middle class.
Ignored the needs and demands of the workers in the cities.
July, 1832 an uprising in Paris was put down by force and 800 were killed or wounded.
1834 Silk workers strike in Lyon was crushed.
A caricature ofLouis Philippe
“When France sneezes, Europe catches cold.”
-- Klemens von
Union with Holland not successful.
No talk of nationalism before 1830
Other movements provided inspiration
North: Dutch, mostly Protestant, seafarers, traders, Flemings (Catholics who speak Dutch)
South : French, Catholic, farmers, workers, Walloons (Catholics who speak French)
Army officers, students, landowners riot against Russian control of Poland
Especially influenced by Romanticism and idea of Nationalism
Took a year for Russia to suppress revolution
Failed revolution – lack of widespread support
No support from France or England
Concert of Europe helped Europe recover from Napoleon
Liberals keep the Conservatives from reversing ALL reforms put in place by the French Revolution.
Successful revolutions greatly benefited the middle class. The workers were left with nothing.
Revolutions left much unfinished and an extremely unsatisfied working class.