Nanotechnologies for displays and data storage
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Nanotechnologies for displays and data storage. Trends in Flat Panel Displays. The market shares of the Flat Panel Displays is increasing: World market of $100 billion in 2005 Two needs: Large displays with low resolution Microdisplays with large resolution (portable systems):

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Trends in flat panel displays l.jpg
Trends in Flat Panel Displays

  • The market shares of the Flat Panel Displays is increasing:

    • World market of $100 billion in 2005

  • Two needs:

  • Large displays with low resolution

  • Microdisplays with large resolution (portable systems):

    • - Laptop, mobile phones, PDA, e-book, GPS, watches, smart card, electronic tags …

  • Today, LCDs dominate the FPD market :

    • 89 % of the FPD market in 2000 (laptop, PDA, mobile phones)


  • Competitive technologies l.jpg
    Competitive technologies

    • Non-microsystems technologies:

      • LCD: a mature and established technology

      • OLED are being developed and is competing with the conventional LCD technology

        • Players: Sanyo (availability in 2003), CDT (UK)

    • Microsystems technologies (integrating µoptical, µelectronical, µmechanical features in the µm range):

      • Micro-mirror arrays or MMAs

      • Grated Light Valves or GLVs

      • Liquid Crystal on Si or LCOS

      • Field Emission Dispalys or FED


    Slide4 l.jpg
    LCD

    • Future applications :

    • Mobiles phones (422 millions of units in 2006, Stanford Resources)

    • Automotive Displays for new multimedia applications (25 millions of units in 2006)

    • Current development of flexible LCD (150 mm) by Philips Research and

    • Toshiba (commercialization planned in 2004).


    An improvement to the lcd the binem technology l.jpg
    An improvement to the LCD: the BiNEM Technology

    • The BiNem® technology is the latest generation of LCD technology keeping display content without any power supply

      • The BiNem® technology has a very high performance level : excellent contrast, very wide viewing angle and neutral colorimetry.

    • Potential applications in smart cards, e-tags

    • Player: Nemoptic (www.nemoptic.fr)


    Oleds l.jpg
    OLEDs

    • Market forecast : 2.5 billion $ in 2005 (DisplaySearch)

    • Applications : Mobiles phones, PDA, TV screens, smart cards

    • Technical advantages compared to LCD

    • Thickness, weight, consumption, low response time and large display angle, flexible screens are possible

    • Brightness : 200 cd/m2 (10 000 h lifetime for blue emitting)

    • Low cost

    • Drawbacks

    • Water and oxygen sensitive (packaging issue)


    Microsystems technologies mma glc l.jpg
    Microsystems technologies: MMA, GLC

    • Si array of Al µmirrors which can be rotated

    • Integrated MST devices over a CMOS circuit

    • First in the market for portable projection systems (Texas Instruments)

    • High switching speed

    • New applications: front projection systems for cinemas, movie

    A pixel is bright or dark on the projection screen according to the mirror tilt

    • Electrostatic-actuated array of ribbons

    • Surface micromachining

    • Each element can reflect or diffract light

    • Silicon Light Machines’ proprietary technology

    Two directions switching. A linear scanner is needed for µdisplaying


    Microsystems technologies lcos feds l.jpg
    Microsystems technologies: LCOS, FEDs

    • Combination of IC and LC technologies

    • Reflective LCOS have high brightness, virtual no pixellisation and electronics integration

    Reflective LCOS

    • Combination of a CDT and a low-power cold cathode

    • Monochromatic screen

    • High cost & packaging issues

    • Low response time/LCD

    • Emerging use of carbon nanotubes for:

      • Better electron emission with lower voltage

      • Prototype 40’’ screen from Ise International (JP) in 2002


    Fpds characteristics l.jpg

    Plasma Displays Panels

    LCD

    OLED

    FED

    200 cd/m2

    200 cd/m2

    70 cd/m2

    600 cd/m2

    Brightness

    350 : 1

    Contrast

    200 : 1

    1000 : 1

    1000 : 1

    2 W

    (5.5”, Sanyo-Kodak)

    3 W

    (10”)

    1000 W

    (61”)

    2 W

    (10”)

    Consumption

    640x480

    (10 inches)

    950 p/cm2

    1 600x1 024

    (22 inches)

    1 100 p/cm2

    eMagin :

    12x9 mm

    47 000 p/cm2

    843x480

    (42 inches)

    80 p/cm2

    Pixellisation

    FPDs’ characteristics

    µdisplays


    Microdisplays roadmap l.jpg

    Liquid Crystal Display (TFT- LCD)

    Digital Light Processing : Digital Micromirror Device (MMAs)

    LCOS

    FEDs

    Organic LED Display (OLEDs)

    Field Emission Displays (FEDs) using CNT

    2010

    2015

    2005

    2000

    Microdisplays roadmap

    • According to Nexus, the microdisplays market will grow from $ 150 million in 2 000 to $ 2 700 million by 2005

    • Depending on the technologies, applications will be direct view, front projection, rear view or near eye


    Evolution of the needs in data storage l.jpg
    Evolution of the needs in data storage

    New applications and services lead to data storage increase:

    • E-Medicine, video on request, interactive 3D video, genome database, biometric data base (finger prints) …

      And new technologies are developed:

    • Magnetic storage is the most used technology today and Thin Film Heads have increasing performances

    • But superparamagnetic effect limit could be reached (60 – 70 Gb/in² is the limit)

    • Other technologies are currently developed to reach 100 Gb/in² in 2005:

      • Optical technologies:

        • Holography

        • Blue laser

      • Nanotechnologies:

        • Nanomechanical storage

        • Atomic resolution storage (the quantum level of an atom becomes the storage media; HP + Darpa project; Objective: 1 Tb/in2 in 2007) …


    Applications roadmap l.jpg

    Network access

    Network access

    Applications roadmap

    Applications

    1- 100 TB

    10 Gb/s

    1- 100 TB

    50 Gb/s

    10- 1000 TB

    100 Gb/s

    WAN

    E- Medicine

    Video mail

    Library

    Fiber

    10 GB/s

    50 GB/s

    250 GB/s

    Data warehousing

    0.1- 10 TB

    200 Mb/s

    10- 100 TB

    1 Gb/s

    1- 50 TB

    500 Mb/s

    LAN

    LAN

    150 Mb/s

    600 Mb/s

    Video discs

    HDTV video

    Video server

    3D video

    Interactive 3D video

    10 GB

    50-100 Mb/s

    Personal database

    100 GB

    100- 250 Mb/s

    1 TB

    1 Gb/s

    PORTABLE

    5 GB

    50 GB

    500 GB

    2000

    2005

    2010


    An example of optical technologies blue laser diodes the challenge l.jpg
    An example of optical technologies: blue laser diodes, the challenge

    • 9 major players have prepared specifications for the next generation of optical disk: « Blue-ray Disc » based on blue-violet laser diode

      • Players are: Hitachi, LG, Matsushita, Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony and Thomson


    Blue laser diodes state of art l.jpg
    Blue laser diodes, state of art challenge

    • Today, only Nichia (J) is commercializing blue laser semiconductor based on GaN grown on sapphire. Its life-time is approximately 15.000 hours for 30 mW power, which is compatible DVD applications.

    • Outsiders are:

      • Sony (J): 15.000 hours (not commercialized)

      • Cree (US): 1000 hours

      • Xerox (US): 100 hours

      • Samsung (K): 2 hours

      • Osram (D)

      • NTT, Toyoda Gosei, Sharp have demonstrators

    • Prices remain very confidential and appears to be not compatible with high volume production of appliances today (Nichia: 1500 € / chip in 2000)


    An example of nano device the millipede ibm l.jpg
    An example of nano-device: the Millipede (IBM) challenge

    • High-density data storage system based on AFM:

      • Thermomechanical storage: Tiny depressions melted by an AFM tip into a polymer medium represent stored data bits that can then be read by the same tip

    • Densities in the hundreds of Gb/in² range

    • The read/write head consists of an array of more than 1 000 thermomechanical probes, fabricated on a single silicon chip using VLSI microfabrication techniques

    • Packaging issue ?



    Technologies roadmap l.jpg

    2000 challenge

    2000

    2005

    2005

    2010

    2010

    2015

    2015

    Technologies roadmap

    Optoelectronic technologies

    Colossal storage Inc project:

    (atomic holographiy recoding) density : 200 Tbits/in2

    Technologie Blue-Ray Disc

    Sharp, TDK: 200 Go planned

    DVD recordable

    (18 Go today)

    Holographic storage

    (3D)

    Other Technologies (magnetic, MO..)

    Superparamagnetic effect (2005) 60 gbits/in2 (source IBM)

    Atomic resolution storage (1 000 Gbits/in2)

    (reading by electronic, optical beam)

    (HP, Darpa)

    AFM storage

    ( Millipede IBM project)

    Perpendicular magnetization

    Heat-assisted magnetic recording (1 000 Gbits/in2 planned)


    Conclusions l.jpg
    Conclusions challenge

    • Today, portable applications are driving micro and nanotechnologies developments

    • Some challenges are :

      • Development of high resolution microdisplays with low consumption

      • Increase of data storage capacity

    • Micro-displays technologies:

      • OLED

      • Micro-mirrors

      • FED w/ CNT

    • Data storage.

      • Read/Write heads is still the main MST market: more than 13 billion $ in 2005

      • Nano-thermomechanical system using arrays of AFM tips.

        • Hundreds of Gb/in² could be achieved.

      • But the magnetic limit is not yet reached !


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