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Deep Sea PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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016b. Deep Sea. Deep Sea. Ocean Zones. photic. 100m. dysphotic. aphotic. Deep Ocean Characteristics. Cold Still Stable Dark Essentially no productivity Sparse Life Extremely high pressure Little food. Potential Food Source for Deep Sea Organisms.

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Deep Sea

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016b

Deep Sea


Deep Sea


Ocean Zones

photic

100m

dysphotic

aphotic


Deep Ocean Characteristics

  • Cold

  • Still

  • Stable

  • Dark

  • Essentially no productivity

  • Sparse Life

  • Extremely high pressure

  • Little food


Potential Food Source for

Deep Sea Organisms

Deep sea orgs are dependant upon surface production from:

  • Dead phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, mammals

  • Fecal pellets and crustacean molts

  • Macrophyte detritus

  • Animal migrations


Potential food source for deep sea organisms


Whale Fall; i.e., marine snow

Scavengers can feed on carcass in less than 6 months


Factors affecting organic material reaching the sea floor:

  • Storms

  • Seasonal variation


Hydrothermal Vents


Ocean Zones

photic

100m

dysphotic

aphotic


Mapping Hydrothermal Vents


Hydrothermal Vents

  • Ballard & Grassle (1977)- Alvin to Galapagos

  • Sulfur-rich vents 660 oF, but quickly cool to 73 oF

  • Thermophilic bacteria associated with vent communities


Location of Vents

Hydrothermal vents found at mid-ocean ridge spreading centers.


Active hydrothermal vents were first discovered at Loihi in the late 1980's


  • 15 mi S.E. of Kilauea

  • 3,178 ft below sea level

  • Will reach sea level in ~10,000 yrs

Loihi


Loihi


Formation of Vents

  • Cold seawater sinks into cracks deep into ocean floor

  • Water heated by magma rises and leaches out minerals from surrounding rocks

  • The water emerges from vents and precipitates out minerals


Alvin


Alvin with Temperature Probe


Hydrothermal Vent Communities

Tube worms- pogonophorans

  • Other orgs:

  • Calyptogena- large white clam

  • Large crabs

  • Sea anemones

  • Shrimp


Hydrothermal Vent Communities

  • Support communities with high biomass, but low diversity

  • Primary producers are chemosynthetic bacteria

  • 90% endemism

  • Communities are small (25-60m in diameter)


Chemosynthetic Bacteria

Chemosynthesis:

Oxygen + hydrogen sulfide + water + carbon dioxide

sugar + sulfuric acid

602 + 6H2S + 6H20 + 6C02 C6H12O6 + 6H2S04


Photosynthesis

vs

Chemosynthesis

Photosynthesis:

6H2O + 6CO2 + nutrients + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2

Chemosynthesis:

602 + 6H2S + 6H20 + 6C02 C6H12O6 + 6H2S04


Inquiry

  • Where are hydrothermal vents located?

  • How do they form?

  • Why doesn’t the vent water boil?

  • Describe the chemosynthetic bacteria's relationship with the vent and other animals living near the vent.


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