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016b. Deep Sea. Deep Sea. Ocean Zones. photic. 100m. dysphotic. aphotic. Deep Ocean Characteristics. Cold Still Stable Dark Essentially no productivity Sparse Life Extremely high pressure Little food. Potential Food Source for Deep Sea Organisms.

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016b

Deep Sea



Ocean Zones

photic

100m

dysphotic

aphotic


Deep Ocean Characteristics

  • Cold

  • Still

  • Stable

  • Dark

  • Essentially no productivity

  • Sparse Life

  • Extremely high pressure

  • Little food


Potential Food Source for

Deep Sea Organisms

Deep sea orgs are dependant upon surface production from:

  • Dead phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, mammals

  • Fecal pellets and crustacean molts

  • Macrophyte detritus

  • Animal migrations



Whale Fall; i.e., marine snow

Scavengers can feed on carcass in less than 6 months




Ocean Zones

photic

100m

dysphotic

aphotic



Hydrothermal Vents

  • Ballard & Grassle (1977)- Alvin to Galapagos

  • Sulfur-rich vents 660 oF, but quickly cool to 73 oF

  • Thermophilic bacteria associated with vent communities


Location of Vents

Hydrothermal vents found at mid-ocean ridge spreading centers.



Loihi


Loihi the late 1980's


Formation of Vents the late 1980's

  • Cold seawater sinks into cracks deep into ocean floor

  • Water heated by magma rises and leaches out minerals from surrounding rocks

  • The water emerges from vents and precipitates out minerals


Alvin the late 1980's



Hydrothermal Vent Communities the late 1980's

Tube worms- pogonophorans

  • Other orgs:

  • Calyptogena- large white clam

  • Large crabs

  • Sea anemones

  • Shrimp


Hydrothermal Vent Communities the late 1980's

  • Support communities with high biomass, but low diversity

  • Primary producers are chemosynthetic bacteria

  • 90% endemism

  • Communities are small (25-60m in diameter)


Chemosynthetic Bacteria the late 1980's

Chemosynthesis:

Oxygen + hydrogen sulfide + water + carbon dioxide

sugar + sulfuric acid

602 + 6H2S + 6H20 + 6C02 C6H12O6 + 6H2S04


Photosynthesis the late 1980's

vs

Chemosynthesis

Photosynthesis:

6H2O + 6CO2 + nutrients + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2

Chemosynthesis:

602 + 6H2S + 6H20 + 6C02 C6H12O6 + 6H2S04


Inquiry the late 1980's

  • Where are hydrothermal vents located?

  • How do they form?

  • Why doesn’t the vent water boil?

  • Describe the chemosynthetic bacteria's relationship with the vent and other animals living near the vent.


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