Chapter 1
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 51

Chapter 1 “Basic Concepts” A general introduction to Human Geography PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 92 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 1 “Basic Concepts” A general introduction to Human Geography. Why Geography Matters! Let’s look at some interesting quotes:.

Download Presentation

Chapter 1 “Basic Concepts” A general introduction to Human Geography

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Chapter 1

“Basic Concepts”

A general introduction to Human Geography


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Why Geography Matters!

Let’s look at some interesting quotes:

  • Geography matters because specific places provide the settings for people’s daily lives. It is in these settings that important events happen, and it is from them that significant changes spread and diffuse.

  • Places and regions are highly interdependent, each filling specialized roles in complex and ever-changing networks of interaction and change.


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

  • Some of the most important aspects of the interdependence between geographical scales are provided by the relationships between the global and the local.

  • Human geography provides ways of understanding places, regions, and spatial relationships as the products of a series of interrelated forces that stem from nature, culture, and individual human action.


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

  • The first law of geography is that "everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things."

  • Friction of Distance - Distance Decay

  • Distance is one aspect of this law, but connectivity is also important, because contact and interaction are dependent on channels of communication and transportation.


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Why Geography and Places Matter!

Geographic knowledge is important because the world is increasingly characterized by:

  • instant global communications – news travels fast

  • unfamiliar international relationships – dealing with cultures that we do not fully understand

  • unexpected local changes – events that occur day to day

  • growing evidence of environmental degradation – climate change, pollution etc.


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Will globalizationrender geography obsolete?

Far from it. In fact:


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

  • Geographers ask two basic questions:

  • Where?

  • Why there?

Geography is a Greek word first used by a scholar by the name of Eratosthenes.

Geo – Earth

Graphy – To Write


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

  • When answering the question ‘Where’ –

  • 5 Geographical themes have to be considered:

  • LOCATION: …Site

  • PLACE: …Situation


Site and situation singapore

Site and Situation: Singapore

Site – actual location of a place

Situation – the location of a place in relation to its surrounding area. How the site interacts with the surrounding area. What is Toronto’s site and situation?


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

  • REGION: …Transition Zone

  • MOVEMENTS: …Communication and Transportation

  • HUMAN-ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTION: … Possibilism and Determinism


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Cultural Ecology – The geographic study of human-environment relationships

Environmental Determinism – “The environment determines how humans adapt. Climate and Terrain are the dominant forces in determining Cultural directions.” Carl Ritter

Possibilism – Humans have choices in the way they interact and respond to their physical settings. The environment provides its human occupants with a range of opportunities for action and with a set of choices to make in responding to their immediate physical setting. “There are no necessities, but everywhere possibilities; and man, as master of the possibilities, is the judge of their use.” Febvre


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

A word about - Distance

  • Absolute distance

  • Relative distance

  • Social distance

    • - …

  • Cognitive distance

    • - …

  • Why is it that sometimes it seems to take longer getting there than coming back!

  • When you have something to do in the car - the time passes quicker!


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

These five themes depend on the main Geographer’s tool – THE MAP!

A MAP is said to take the observer from reality to artificial. A map is a two dimensional representation of the surface of the earth.How can we show the third dimension of height?

No map can perfectly represent reality.(especially Altitude and Projection) Explain this!

Maps can alter your perception of what you see.(You can lie with maps) Expand on this!


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

When creating a map, the cartographer must select the objects to be shown, evaluate their relative importance, and find some way to simplify their form. In attempting to generalize the data, the cartographer is limited by the purpose of the map, its scale, the methods to produce it, and the accuracy of the data.


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

  • Map Projections - …

  • Simplification - …

  • Scale - …

  • Aggregation - …

  • Classification - …

  • Symbolization - …

  • Induction - …

  • Types of Maps - …


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Large Scale

Small Scale


U s a elections 2000 2008 aggregation

U.S.A. Elections 2000/2008: Aggregation!

Presidential elections by county and by state. What do you see?


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

  • Types of Maps – There are many types of Maps to choose from:

    • Reference Maps

    • Choropleth Maps (Thematic)

    • Isoline Maps

    • Proportional Symbol Maps

    • Dot Maps

    • Statistical Maps

    • Mental Maps


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

  • Cartograms or Isodemographic Maps – …

Below is a CRQ question that appeared on an AP exam based on a Cartogram:

Shown above is a special type of graphic used by geographers.

1. Identify the type of graphic by name.

2. What qualities does it have that qualify it as a graph?

3. What qualities would qualify it as a map?


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Now comes an important point. The Geographer must now analyze the map. The geographer looks at the map for Distributions, Densities, Concentrations, Inter-relations and Patterns!


Density concentration and pattern the above are types of distributions

Density, Concentration, and Pattern- the above are types of distributions

Density – the frequency that something occurs in space

a. Arithmetic Density b. Physiological Density

c. Agricultural Density

All – 82 Acres

Concentration – The extent of a feature’s spread over space – clustered or dispersed

24 houses

Pattern – the geometric arrangement of objects in space

Linear, circular, square, grid or radial patterns

32 houses

The top plan for a residential area has a lower density than the middle plan. Both are dispersed concentrations. The middle and lower plans have the same density but the houses are more clustered in the lower plan. The lower plan preserves more woods and fields, where as the middle plan provides more private yard space for each house.

32 houses


Density and concentration of baseball teams 1952 2000

Density and Concentration of Baseball Teams, 1952–2000

The changing distribution of North American baseball teams illustrates the differences between density and concentration. Explain this statement.


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

If a geographer were to visit a particular place – they would be looking at the Landscape of that place.

“The material character of a place, the complex of natural features, human structures, and other tangible objects that give a place a particular form.” de Blij


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

“The appearance of an area, the assemblage of objects (both Natural and Built) used to produce that appearance” Johnston

“an area made up of a distinct association of forms, both physical and cultural” Sauer


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Cultural Landscape – the visible imprint of human activity on the landscape. Any cultural landscape has layers of imprints from years of human activity. As successive occupiers arrive, they bring their own technological and cultural traditions and transform the landscape.


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

“Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result’- Carl Sauer

Culture – the body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people.


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Define: Artifact, Mentifact and Sociofact.


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

  • Recently Geographers have also had to deal with two new ‘buzz’ words when looking at a place and its inter-relations.

  • Globalization – cultural and economic interaction amongst the world.

  • Local Diversity – cultural traditions and economic practices within a community.


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

What does this say about Culture?

What does this say about Globalization and Localization?


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

  • Modern technology has helped the cartographer in the way data is collected, displayed and analyzed.

  • G.I.S. Geographic Information Systems

  • Remote Sensing

  • G.P.S. Global Positioning System


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Geographic Information Systems - G.I.S.

ArcMap is an example

A computer program that combines Spatial co-ordinates (eg. latitude and longitude) data with attribute (values for the above locational points.

Prior to GIS, a table of numbers could be analyzed statistically and the results created another table. GIS allowed the tables to be seen spatially. Suddenly regions and patterns could be seen.


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Another important aspect of GIS is its ability to create a map using separate layers. One layer could be rivers, another roads and yet another could be human settlement. This layering gives the cartographer a lot of analytical power.

What is Raster? What is Vector?


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Remote Sensingis the gathering of data above the Earth’s surface from a satellite. Remote Sensing allows the cartographer to gather information about a place without actually going there.


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

False Colour Images


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Global Positioning Systems - GPS

A GPS is a simple hand held receiver that can (with the use of orbiting satellites) determine your exact location and height on the earth.

GPS and GIS go hand in hand.


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Other Notes


Formal and functional regions

Formal and Functional Regions

The state of Iowa is an example of a formal region; the areas of influence of various television stations are examples of functional regions. Define Formal and Functional Regions.


Vernacular regions

Vernacular Regions

A number of factors are often used to define the South as a vernacular region, each of which identifies somewhat different boundaries. Define Vernacular region.


Environmental modification in the netherlands

Environmental Modification in the Netherlands

This modification was very successful!

Polders and dikes have been used for extensive environmental modification in the Netherlands.What is a Polder?


Environmental modification in florida

Environmental Modification in Florida

This modification was not successful!

Straightening the Kissimmee River has had many

unintended side effects. What could they be?


Space time compression 1492 1962

Space-Time Compression, 1492–1962

The times required to cross the Atlantic, or orbit the Earth, illustrate how transport improvements have shrunk the world. What is Space-Time Compression?


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

One of the most important words in AP Human Geography is Spatial Diffusion. Diffusion is the process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time.

Define the following:

1. Relocation Diffusion

2. Expansion Diffusion: Hierarchical Diffusion

Contagious Diffusion

Stimulus Diffusion


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Which one is Contagious? Relocation?

Hierarchical?


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Diffusion of Aids - What type of Diffusion?

Node

Hearth


Airline route networks

Airline Route Networks

Delta Airlines, like many others, has configured its route network in a “hub and spoke” system. This is Nodal!


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Spatial Diffusion: Think of the H1N1 virus or even a gaming system like the PS3 or the Xbox.

How about the virus making a comeback!


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Economies of Scale

The more you buy or the more you make the cheaper it is!


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

Vocabulary List for Chapter 1

“The following list is an extensive list from the College Board - our goal is to cover as many as possible!”


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

  • Unit I. Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives - Basic Vocabulary and Concepts

  • Basic Concepts

  • Changing attributes of place (built landscape, sequent occupance)

  • Cultural attributes (cultural landscape)

  • Density (arithmetic, physiological)

  • Diffusion (hearth, relocation, expansion, hierarchical, contagious, stimulus)

  • Direction (absolute, relative)

  • Dispersion/concentration (dispersed/scattered, clustered/agglomerated)

  • Distance (absolute, relative)

  • Distribution

  • Environmental determinism

  • Location (absolute, relative, site, situation, place name)

  • Pattern (linear, centralized, random)

  • Physical attributes (natural landscape)

  • Possibilism

  • Region (formal/uniform, functional/nodal, perceptual/vernacular)

  • Scale (implied degree of generalization)

  • Size

  • Spatial (of or pertaining to space on or near Earth’s surface)

  • Spatial interaction (accessibility, connectivity, network, distance decay, friction of distance, time-space compression)


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

  • Geographic Tools

  • Distortion

  • Geographic Information System (GIS)

  • Global Positioning System (GPS)

  • Grid (North and South Poles, latitude, parallel, equator, longitude, meridian, prime meridian, international date line)

  • Map (Maps are the tool most uniquely identified with geography; the ability to use and interpret maps is an essential geographic skill.)

  • Map scale (distance on a map relative to distance on Earth)

  • Map types (thematic, statistical, cartogram, dot, choropleth, isoline)

  • Mental map

  • Model (a simplified abstraction of reality, structured to clarify causal relationships): Geographers use models (e.g., Demographic Transition, Epidemiological Transition, Gravity, Von Thünen, Weber, Stages of Growth [Rostow], Concentric Circle [Burgess], Sector [Hoyt], Multiple Nuclei, Central Place [Christaller], and so on) to explain patterns, make informed decisions, and predict future behaviors.

  • Projection

  • Remote sensing

  • Time zone


Chapter 1 basic concepts a general introduction to human geography

The End!


  • Login