Chapter 1 “Basic Concepts” A general introduction to Human Geography. Why Geography Matters! Let’s look at some interesting quotes:.
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A general introduction to Human Geography
Why Geography Matters!
Let’s look at some interesting quotes:
Why Geography and Places Matter!
Geographic knowledge is important because the world is increasingly characterized by:
Will globalizationrender geography obsolete?
Far from it. In fact:
Geography is a Greek word first used by a scholar by the name of Eratosthenes.
Geo – Earth
Graphy – To Write
Site – actual location of a place
Situation – the location of a place in relation to its surrounding area. How the site interacts with the surrounding area. What is Toronto’s site and situation?
Cultural Ecology – The geographic study of human-environment relationships
Environmental Determinism – “The environment determines how humans adapt. Climate and Terrain are the dominant forces in determining Cultural directions.” Carl Ritter
Possibilism – Humans have choices in the way they interact and respond to their physical settings. The environment provides its human occupants with a range of opportunities for action and with a set of choices to make in responding to their immediate physical setting. “There are no necessities, but everywhere possibilities; and man, as master of the possibilities, is the judge of their use.” Febvre
A word about - Distance
These five themes depend on the main Geographer’s tool – THE MAP!
A MAP is said to take the observer from reality to artificial. A map is a two dimensional representation of the surface of the earth.How can we show the third dimension of height?
No map can perfectly represent reality.(especially Altitude and Projection) Explain this!
Maps can alter your perception of what you see.(You can lie with maps) Expand on this!
When creating a map, the cartographer must select the objects to be shown, evaluate their relative importance, and find some way to simplify their form. In attempting to generalize the data, the cartographer is limited by the purpose of the map, its scale, the methods to produce it, and the accuracy of the data.
Presidential elections by county and by state. What do you see?
Below is a CRQ question that appeared on an AP exam based on a Cartogram:
Shown above is a special type of graphic used by geographers.
1. Identify the type of graphic by name.
2. What qualities does it have that qualify it as a graph?
3. What qualities would qualify it as a map?
Now comes an important point. The Geographer must now analyze the map. The geographer looks at the map for Distributions, Densities, Concentrations, Inter-relations and Patterns!
Density – the frequency that something occurs in space
a. Arithmetic Density b. Physiological Density
c. Agricultural Density
All – 82 Acres
Concentration – The extent of a feature’s spread over space – clustered or dispersed
Pattern – the geometric arrangement of objects in space
Linear, circular, square, grid or radial patterns
The top plan for a residential area has a lower density than the middle plan. Both are dispersed concentrations. The middle and lower plans have the same density but the houses are more clustered in the lower plan. The lower plan preserves more woods and fields, where as the middle plan provides more private yard space for each house.
The changing distribution of North American baseball teams illustrates the differences between density and concentration. Explain this statement.
If a geographer were to visit a particular place – they would be looking at the Landscape of that place.
“The material character of a place, the complex of natural features, human structures, and other tangible objects that give a place a particular form.” de Blij
“The appearance of an area, the assemblage of objects (both Natural and Built) used to produce that appearance” Johnston
“an area made up of a distinct association of forms, both physical and cultural” Sauer
Cultural Landscape – the visible imprint of human activity on the landscape. Any cultural landscape has layers of imprints from years of human activity. As successive occupiers arrive, they bring their own technological and cultural traditions and transform the landscape.
“Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result’- Carl Sauer
Culture – the body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people.
Define: Artifact, Mentifact and Sociofact.
What does this say about Culture?
What does this say about Globalization and Localization?
Geographic Information Systems - G.I.S.
ArcMap is an example
A computer program that combines Spatial co-ordinates (eg. latitude and longitude) data with attribute (values for the above locational points.
Prior to GIS, a table of numbers could be analyzed statistically and the results created another table. GIS allowed the tables to be seen spatially. Suddenly regions and patterns could be seen.
Another important aspect of GIS is its ability to create a map using separate layers. One layer could be rivers, another roads and yet another could be human settlement. This layering gives the cartographer a lot of analytical power.
What is Raster? What is Vector?
Remote Sensingis the gathering of data above the Earth’s surface from a satellite. Remote Sensing allows the cartographer to gather information about a place without actually going there.
False Colour Images
Global Positioning Systems - GPS
A GPS is a simple hand held receiver that can (with the use of orbiting satellites) determine your exact location and height on the earth.
GPS and GIS go hand in hand.
The state of Iowa is an example of a formal region; the areas of influence of various television stations are examples of functional regions. Define Formal and Functional Regions.
A number of factors are often used to define the South as a vernacular region, each of which identifies somewhat different boundaries. Define Vernacular region.
This modification was very successful!
Polders and dikes have been used for extensive environmental modification in the Netherlands.What is a Polder?
This modification was not successful!
Straightening the Kissimmee River has had many
unintended side effects. What could they be?
The times required to cross the Atlantic, or orbit the Earth, illustrate how transport improvements have shrunk the world. What is Space-Time Compression?
One of the most important words in AP Human Geography is Spatial Diffusion. Diffusion is the process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time.
Define the following:
1. Relocation Diffusion
2. Expansion Diffusion: Hierarchical Diffusion
Which one is Contagious? Relocation?
Diffusion of Aids - What type of Diffusion?
Delta Airlines, like many others, has configured its route network in a “hub and spoke” system. This is Nodal!
Spatial Diffusion: Think of the H1N1 virus or even a gaming system like the PS3 or the Xbox.
How about the virus making a comeback!
Economies of Scale
The more you buy or the more you make the cheaper it is!
Vocabulary List for Chapter 1
“The following list is an extensive list from the College Board - our goal is to cover as many as possible!”