Chapter 2 Phonetics and Phonology. Phonetics . ----A branch of linguistics which studies the characteristics of speech sounds and provides methods for their description, classification and transcription, e.g. [p] bilabial, stop. Three branches of phonetics .
----A branch of linguistics which studies the characteristics of speech sounds and provides methods for their description, classification and transcription, e.g. [p] bilabial, stop.
---- A standardized and internationally accepted system of phonetic transcription is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The basic principle of the IPA is using one letter to represent one speech sound.
---- dimensions on which speech sounds may vary:
---- English speech sounds are generally classified into two large categories:
Note: The essential difference between these two classes is that in the production of the former the airstream meets with no obstruction of any kind in the throat, the nose or the mouth, while in that of the latter it is somehow obstructed.
---- English consonants may be classified according to two dimensions:
---- English vowels can be divided into two large categories:
----According to which part of the tongue is held highest in the process of production, the vowels can be distinguished as:
pay horse tough rice breath push sing wreathe hang cave message
train bang leaf limb
drill pipe fit crab fog ride laugh rack through
mad lot but boot word
reed pad load fate bit bed cook
who he bus her hit true boss bar walk
paid reap fool top good father
vd/vl place manner
Why Vowels in English are not classified as consonants?
How English vowels are classified? Or What possible ways do we have to divide the English vowels into different classes?
Describe [u:] by means of the different ways of classification. If a vowel is described as back, rounded, open and short, what sound is it?
What is liaison, elision and assimilation? Illustrate them with examples.
Phoneme: smallest phonological unit that distinguish meaning.
Form and meaning: signifier vs signified
Identifying the sounds:
sip zip alveolar/fricative/+-voicing
fine vine labiodental/fricative/+-voicing
chunk junk palatal/liquid/+-voicing
Phonemes involved: /s//z//f//v/t///
4. Testing: substitution (pen/ben; pen/pin)
Minimal pair: a pair of words identical in every way except for one sound segment in the same position.
Minimal set: a group of words differentiated by one sound segment in the same position.
Free variation:When the substitution of two or more sounds in the same position does not result in any change of meaning, they’re said to be in free variation. economics
You say [i]ther and I say [ai]ther,
You say [ni:]ther and I say [nai]ther,
[i:]ther [ai]ther [ni:]ther [nai]ther
Let’s call the whole thing off.
Distinctive features:features that distinguish one phoneme with another. Seal/zeal
Supresegmental features:distinctive features above the level of individual segments over a sequence of two or more phonemic segments such as syllable, word, phrase and sentence which may also distinguish meaning.
Syllable:longer than one sound and smaller than a word.
Phonetically: a unit consisting of a center which has little or no airflow and sounds comparatively loud.(sonority scale: klasp14521)
Phonologically:it concerns the way vowels and consonants combine to form various sequences. (sequential rule:CCCVCCCC)sixths
Terms:Close/open syllable; Initial cluster: splash; medial cluster: pastry; final cluster: test
i. [s] ii. [p] [t] [k] iii. [l] [r] [w] [j]
e.g. spring, scream, string, squeal, square, splendid, stew
Stress:intensity or prominence given to one syllable rather than another.
Word stress: import/import
Phrase stress: black bird; green house
Sentence stress: I love you.
Logical stress: I love YOU.
Tone: pitch variation(妈麻马骂 car)
Intonation: variation in stress, pitch or loudness (falling; rising; fall-rise; rise-fall)
That’s not the book he wants.
John didn’t come because of Mary.
Difference between phonetics and phonology
Suprasegmental features: syllable, stress, tone, intonation, tone group
Homework: exercise 5,6 and 7.