Final from here. Apples and oranges. How can we take the findings from a domestic situation where a cat comes home to a bowl of food to A predator that has to hunt down its prey regardless of what species it is???
Final from here
- Habitats are different
Other: 56 wolves
Now each has a success value to it for predator. Based on
Two principle lines of investigation
Where risk is low:
- Use all parts of habitat
Where risk is high:
- Use the most secure areas
2. Changes in Behavior.
-Time foraging vs surveying.
Where risk is low:
- eat more and survey less.
Where the risk is high:
- survey more and eat less.
Since the 1980’s – lots of studies:
Mech, L.D. 1977. Wolf-pack buffer zones as prey reservoirs.
Edwards, J. 1983. Diet shifts in moose due to predator avoidance.
Stephens, P.W. and R.O. Peterson. 1984. Wolf-avoidence strategies
of moose. Holarctic Ecology 7:239-244.
Scrimegeour G.J. and J.M. Culp. 1994. Foraging and evading predators:
the effect of predator species on a behavioural trade-off by a
lotic mayfly. Oikos 69:71-79.
Hunter, L.T.B. and J.D. Skinner. 1998. Vigilance behaviour in African
ungulates: the role of predation pressure. Behaviour. 135:195-211.
All indicate that the prey are
adjusting their behavior
because of the risk of predation.
All this made us think of what might be
the basic force to explain these
reactions of prey to their predators.
Fear of predation changes how they
use the landscape
as they move about the landscape
to reduce predation risk.
Thus a landscape of physical features
is seen through their eyes as a landscape
of differing levels of risk or fear
A Landscape of Fear
We chose the concept of fear because.
We know it is an emotion that exists
on the intra specific level (complement
If a subordinate animal can show
fear of its superior.
Imagine what its emotion would be when
faced with a predator that is going to kill it!