NATO Operations in Afghanistan
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NATO Operations in Afghanistan. Steven Mirr Director, Defense Operations US Mission to NATO. ISAF Mission. Mission: Assist the Afghan government to establish and maintain security; Facilitate the development of Afghan government structures; Extend Afghan government control;

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NATO Operations in Afghanistan

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Nato operations in afghanistan

NATO Operations in Afghanistan

Steven Mirr

Director, Defense Operations

US Mission to NATO


Nato operations in afghanistan

ISAF Mission

Mission:

  • Assist the Afghan government to establish and maintain security;

  • Facilitate the development of Afghan government structures;

  • Extend Afghan government control;

  • Assist reconstruction and humanitarian efforts

    Desired Military End-state:

  • Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) are able to provide security and sustain stability in Afghanistan without NATO support


Nato operations in afghanistan

Political Overview

  • Lack of self confidence

  • Regional, tribal, ethnic and sectarian groupings

  • Weak state structure

  • Loose link between Central and Regional Governments

  • Lack of experience & professionalism

  • Underlying dynamic of the national economy is the drug trade


Nato operations in afghanistan

Threat Assessment

  • Against greater government authority:

    • Lack of basic security mechanisms

    • Criminality and lawlessness

    • Corruption

    • Porous borders

    • Opposing militant forces

    • Illegal narcotics

  • Rule of law is slowly being imposed


Nato operations in afghanistan

ISAF Troop Contributing Nations

Jordan

Latvia

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Netherlands

New

Zealand

Norway

Poland

Portugal

Romania

152

94

261

9

1,718

115

418

1,090

7

539

Estonia

Finland

France

FYROM

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

117

104

1,442

131

3,181

60

223

9

7

2,874

Albania

Australia

Austria

Azerbaijan

Belgium

Bulgaria

Canada

Croatia

Czech

Republic

Denmark

118

1055

3

44

365

370

2,526

234

154

643

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

Ukraine

United

Kingdom

United

States

TOTAL:

68

48

730

342

2

626

229

8,296

17,250

45,655

As of Jan 08


Nato operations in afghanistan

ISAF Overview

RC N

Lead nation

RC W

Lead nation

RC E

Lead nation

RC C

Lead nation

LEGEND

Provincial Capital City

Provincial Reconstruction Team

RC North

RC West

RC South

RC East

RC S

Lead nation

RC Capital

Total Forces

~46

,000


Nato operations in afghanistan

Security Sector Reform

Counter

Narcotics

United

Kingdom

Judicial

Reform

Italy

Disarmament

Of Illegally

Armed Groups

(DIAG)

Japan

Train the

Afghan

National

Army

United

States

Train

Police

Forces

Germany

Rebuilding

Afghanistan

Afghan Compact 2006

SECURITY SECTOR REFORM

INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

UNAMA-NGOs

ISAF OEF


Nato operations in afghanistan

Security Challenges

  • Nations are not meeting the capability requirements specified in the Combined Joint Statement of Requirements (CJSOR)

  • Key deficiencies include Rotary Wing Lift, Manoeuvre Forces and Operational Mentor & Liaison Teams (OMLTs)

  • Operational capabilities of some individual units are limited by national caveats or other national constraints


Nato operations in afghanistan

Afghan National Security Forces

  • Afghan National Army (ANA)

    • One of the success stories in the rebuilding of Afghanistan’s government institutions

    • Sustained NATO support required

  • Operational Mentor & Liaison Teams (OMLT)

    • Number one way for NATO to support the development of the Afghan National Police (ANP)


Nato operations in afghanistan

Afghan National Army

  • ANA continues to grow in capacity as well as capability

  • Growth: ANA increased from 25,000 to 37,000 (48% increase)

  • Experience: 201ST and 203RD Corps have the ability to plan operations and have conducted Afghan led operations

  • Explosives Ordnance Disposal (EOD): ANA has started basic EOD and counter-IED training

  • Commandos: (began training 6 months ago)

    • 201ST Kandak progressed to no notice operational employment

    • 203RD Kandak demonstrated operational capability in December 07

  • ANA Air Corps

    • Increased flight time from 100 hrs/month to 140 hrs/month

    • Flew as an integrated serial within the CJTF-82 Aviation TF

    • Performed flood relief missions (1200+ saves)


Nato operations in afghanistan

Afghan National Police

Provincial Training Center

Regional Training Center

  • Emerging as a trusted national security institution

  • Focused District Development: improving ANP performance district-by-district, developing district-level capabilities, strengthening command linkages, enabling the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA) to project success


Nato operations in afghanistan

RC-East Security Operations

2006

2007

24-month

average

RC-East Border Incidents in NE ; in SE

  • Expanded Presence: A 50% growth in security forces in Regional Command-East resulted in a corresponding 39.5% increase in enemy contacts; mostly harassing fires

    • An increased number of bases and posts along known insurgent support areas and infiltration routes

    • A greater number of Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) expanding into additional areas

    • An increase in the number of operations more rapidly separates the enemy from the populace

  • Border Incidents: Insurgents are focusing moreon gains and expansion opportunities in Pakistan

    • Significant decrease over Nov-Dec

    • 42% below same time period in 2006

  • Suicide IEDs (SIED): Insurgents focused more on Pakistan resulting in a decrease in SIEDs in RC-E

    • SIEDs in Pakistan 2006 (5); in 2007 (60)

    • SIEDs in RC-E Apr-Dec 2006 (52); Apr-Dec 2007 (50)

  • Key Insurgent Leaders targeted: Strengthened Coalition Forces / Afghan partnerships and reduced enemy’s ability to facilitate weapons, conduct IED attacks, and coordinate support

    • 112 Key Insurgent Leaders removed from the insurgent network in 2007; (82 in 2006)

    • Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) participated, planned, or led many of these operations

  • Security: Despite an increase in enemy activity, citizens feel safe to conduct daily activities, move freely, pursue work and education, and participate in civic activities

    • Increase in traffic: Andar (Hwy 1) Apr-May avg 100 vehicles per month; now 500 vehicles per day

    • Afghans are attending Shuras, Humanitarian Assistance distribution, medical engagements, responding to calls for workers, using Government Centers; children are attending school


Nato operations in afghanistan

Afghan Development Strategy

  • Afghan National Development Strategy (ANDS)

    • Currently exists in interim form (I-ANDS)

    • Based on Sub-national consultations

    • Needs to be sequenced and resourced

  • National Priority Programmes (NPP)

    • Delivers against I-ANDS targets

  • Policy Action Group (PAG)

    • Prioritises needs, link to donors

    • Endorse Afghan Development Zones (ADZs)

  • UNAMA - coordination IC effort


Nato operations in afghanistan

Afghan Development Zones

RC(W) and RC(N) ADZs seeking PAG approval

Badakhshan

Balkh

Kunduz

Faryab

Qala-i Now

Parwan

RC(E) PAG Approved 6 Dec 06

Jalalabad

Surobi

Herat

Ghazni / Tri-Cities

Farah

Tarin Kowt

Qalat

Lashkar Gah

Kandahar

Endorsed

Await Policy Action Group (PAG) approval

RC(S) PAG Approved 30 Aug 06


Nato operations in afghanistan

The Comprehensive Approach

Kajaki Dam

$300M ,12 month

hydro-power project

Sangin-Gereshk

$3.7m ALP &

community outreach

Route 611

DuriJunc-Sangin Rd

AFG sub-contractors

Highway 1

Duri Junction

Road construction camp


Nato operations in afghanistan

Provincial Reconstruction Teams

  • Primary tool for stability operations

  • Assisting expansion of Afghan governance

  • Must promote an Afghan ownership of projects

  • ‘One size fits all’ PRT neither appropriate nor possible


Nato operations in afghanistan

ISAF PRT Tasks

  • Improve the security environment for the Afghan people through dialogue with provincial leaders and confidence building activities and mitigating likely areas of conflict.

  • Monitor, assess, advise on and support security sector reform activities, particularly Afghan National Army and police training, in close co-ordination with UNAMA, security sector reform lead-nations and bilateral programmes.

  • Facilitate the development of effective provincial governance, building capacity to plan, prioritise and manage programmes and major events.

  • Encourage and facilitate the work of provincial development committees, and other committees that may emerge, for example on security, and provincial bodies, such as joint coordination centres.

  • Advise on the coordination of Afghan security forces/agencies in a province.

  • Provide a visible presence in assigned areas of operation, monitoring and assessing the military and civil situations within those areas.

  • Act as the development reconnaissance force for the reconstruction effort, offering a coherent picture of needs to the ISAF chain of command, provincial authorities and those assisting redevelopment.

  • Assist the international community with the process of reform and strengthening of civil administration.

  • Help to facilitate information sharing between the Afghan government and civil agencies, on their request.

  • Support humanitarian assistance and reconstruction activities when requested, within means and capabilities.


Nato operations in afghanistan

Counter Narcotics

  • President Karzai: “Either we destroy poppy, or it will destroy Afghanistan”

  • Afghanistan supplies 93% of the world’s illicit opium

  • Majority of poppy cultivation in the south

  • Narcotics fund insurgency, insurgents help preserve the drug trade


Nato operations in afghanistan

Progress in Afghanistan


Nato operations in afghanistan

The Way Ahead for ISAF

  • Build upon Provincial Reconstruction Team success at local levels

  • Increase support to Afghan National Army / Security Forces

  • Increased support to Afghan Counter Narcotics efforts

  • Support regional stability

  • Assist Afghan Government implementation of comprehensive, nationwide development program


Nato operations in afghanistan

Questions?


Nato operations in afghanistan

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