S E M A N T I C S. S E M A N T I C S. 1. Study of linguistic meanings 2. Explores the variety of meanings and meaning relationships that hold between words and sentences 3. Has 2 sub-domains: Lexical (words) and sentential (sentences). denotations VS referents.
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1. Study of linguistic meanings
2. Explores the variety of meanings and meaning relationships that hold between words and sentences
3. Has 2 sub-domains: Lexical (words) and sentential (sentences)
Denotation: literal meaning of word/phrase
Referent: the actual entity (ies) that a word signifies.
Reference: the relationship that exists between a word and its referent(s).
a) The President of the United States
b) Capital of Canada
c) The women who walked on the moon
d) My linguistic professor
The eye of a needle
The foot of the bed
The hands of the clock
The arm of a chair
Describes non-living entities in terms of physical human features
The lecture is easy to digest
He just eats up the lecturer’s words
Chew on this thought for a while
Listen to this juicy piece of gossip
Describes knowledgein terms of food-related terminology
Your claims are indefensible
He shotdown all my arguments
His criticisms were right on target
If you use that strategy, he’ll wipe you out
I demolished his argument
He attacked every weak point in my argument
Describes argumentsin terms of war terminology
He unleashed his anger
Her anger was aroused
Your temper is ferocious
She was bristling with rage
Describes wrathin terms of animalistic features
Sentential semantics – Relations between sentences AKA Logical connections
Definition of entailment:
Proposition A entails Proposition B if the truth of A makes B necessarily true.
i.e The truth of sentence A ensures the truth of sentence B.
A: I boiled an egg.
B: I cooked an egg.
Definition of Presupposition:
An implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to a sentence whose truth is taken for granted, so to speak.
John believes that Maria went to the graduation ceremony.
The captain realized that the ship was in danger.
It is significant that the criminal was sentenced.
It is likely that the criminal was sentenced.
Answer: It is significantthat the criminal was sentenced.
Significant Presupposition that criminal is already
Likely encapsulates a personal opinion and criminal might not be sentenced yet.
A. Who killed Sylvia?
B. Where did you put the cheese?
C. Why is there sadness in the world?