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Teaching pronunciation. English in the 21 st Century & How to Teach Segmentals. English in the 21 st Century. How many people are there in the world today? How many of them speak English?. English in the 21 st Century. There are over 7 billion people in the world today.

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teaching pronunciation

Teaching pronunciation

English in the 21st Century & How to Teach Segmentals

english in the 21 st century
English in the 21st Century

How many people are there in the world today?

How many of them speak English?

english in the 21 st century1
English in the 21st Century

There are over 7 billion people in the world today.

More than 25% of them speak English fluently or

competently (Crystal 2003, quoted in Jenkins 2007).

english in the 21 st century2
English in the 21st Century

This is BrajKachru’s famous model for understanding how English functions in different countries. (in Crystal, 1995)

english in the 21 st century3
English in the 21st Century

How many users in each circle?

  • 300-500 million in

inner circle (e.g., US)

  • 320-380 million in

outer circle (e.g., India)

  • 500 million – 1 billion in expanding circle (e.g., VN)

(Figures from Crystal, 2003,

quoted in Jenkins, 2007)

slide7

So why am I telling you this

on the day we are talking about teaching pronunciation?

nativeness versus intelligibility
Nativeness versus Intelligibility
  • Nativeness principle: the goal of pronunciation teaching is for learner to achieve native-like pronunciation in the target language
  • Intelligibility principle: the goal of pronunciation teaching is for learners to be understood when speaking
nativeness versus intelligibility1
Nativeness versus Intelligibility

Which is more important and realistic in your context?

does being a native speaker make a person a good pronunciation teacher
Does being a native speaker make a person a good pronunciation teacher?
  • Go to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lz0IT4Uk2xQ to see the video!
slide11

Does being a native speaker make a person a good pronunciation teacher?

What are some advantages NNESTs (non native English speaking teachers) have over NESTs (native English speaking teachers)?

teaching segmentals vowel sounds
Teaching Segmentals: Vowel Sounds
  • What English vowels are difficult for you to pronounce? Which are easy?
  • What strategies have you or your past English teachers used to improve your production of English vowel sounds? Which ones were the most successful?
common vowel problems
Common Vowel Problems
  • /iy/ vs. /ɪ/ seat/sit, sheep/ship
  • /ɛ/ vs. /æ/ vet/vat, pest/past
  • /ʌ/ vs. /ʊ/ buck/book, cud/could
teaching vowels iy vs
Teaching Vowels: /iy/ vs. /ɪ/
  • What do you already know about these sounds?
teaching vowels iy vs1
Teaching Vowels: /iy/ vs. /ɪ/
  • Help Ss understand the mouth position
teaching vowels iy vs2
Teaching Vowels: /iy/ vs. /ɪ/
  • Help Ss understand the mouth position
  • Exaggerate and use movement to help them pronounce the sound correctly
teaching vowels iy vs3
Teaching Vowels: /iy/ vs. /ɪ/
  • Help Ss understand the mouth position
  • Exaggerate and use movement to help them pronounce the sound correctly
  • Drill using minimal pairs

SLEEP SLIP

GREEN GRIN

LEAVE LIVE

EAT IT

teaching vowels iy vs4
Teaching Vowels: /iy/ vs. /ɪ/
  • Help Ss understand the mouth position
  • Exaggerate and use movement to help them pronounce the sound correctly
  • Drill using minimal pairs
  • Give listening discrimination practice
listening discrimination
Listening Discrimination

Directions: 1) copy the words; 2) listen to the teacher (or recording) say the words and mark the one you hear.

1. ___ SLEEP ___ SLIP

2. ___ GREEN ___ GRIN

3. ___ LEAVE ___ LIVE

4. ___ EAT ___ IT

teaching vowels iy vs5
Teaching Vowels: /iy/ vs. /ɪ/
  • Help Ss understand the mouth position
  • Exaggerate and use movement to help them pronounce the sound correctly
  • Drill using minimal pairs
  • Give listening discrimination practice
  • Do controlled practice activities

Example: What’s Your Phone Number

what s your phone number
What’s Your Phone Number

0- sleep 1- slip

2- green 3- grin

4- leave 5- live

6- eat 7- it

8- seat 9- sit

teaching segmentals consonant sounds
Teaching Segmentals: Consonant Sounds
  • What English consonant sounds are difficult for you to pronounce? Which are easy?
  • What strategies have you or your past English teachers used to improve your production of English consonant sounds? Which ones were the most successful?
common consonant problems
Common Consonant Problems
  • /p/ vs. /b/pat/bat, pour/bore
  • /g/ vs. /k/gut/cut, gain/cane
  • Final consonants false
  • Consonant clusters months
teaching consonants p vs b
Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/
  • What do you already know about these sounds?
teaching consonants p vs b1
Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/
  • Instruct Ss about how to form the sounds
    • Show a picture or exaggerate your mouth position
teaching consonants p vs b2
Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/
  • Instruct Ss about how to form the sounds
    • Show a picture or exaggerate your mouth position
    • Practice voiced and unvoiced by touching your vocal chords
teaching consonants p vs b3
Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/
  • Instruct Ss about how to form the sounds
    • Show a picture or exaggerate your mouth position
    • Practice voiced and unvoiced by touching your vocal chords
    • Use a piece of paper to demonstrate aspiration
teaching consonants p vs b4
Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/
  • Instruct Ss about how to form the sounds
  • Drill using minimal pairs

PAT BAT

PIE BUY

PIG BIG

PAIR BEAR

POOR BORE

TAP TAB

teaching consonants p vs b5
Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/
  • Instruct Ss about how to form the sounds
  • Drill using minimal pairs
  • Give listening discrimination practice

___ PIE ___ BUY

___ PIG ___ BIG

___ POOR ___ BORE

___ TAP ___ TAB

teaching consonants p vs b6
Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/
  • Instruct Ss about how to form the sounds
  • Drill using minimal pairs
  • Give listening discrimination practice
  • Do a controlled practice activity

Example: Pronunciation Journey

what are final consonants
What are Final Consonants?
  • Is the answer true or false?
  • My favorite color is black.
  • Please send those two emails to me.
teaching final consonants
Teaching Final Consonants
  • Drill the word exaggerating the final consonant

BLACK FALSE EMAILS

teaching final consonants1
Teaching Final Consonants
  • Drill the word exaggerating the final consonant
  • Give listening discrimination practice

Example: Slap the board

teaching final consonants2
Teaching Final Consonants
  • Drill the word exaggerating the final consonant
  • Give listening discrimination practice
  • Do a controlled practice activity

Example: Word Chain

teaching final consonants3
Teaching Final Consonants
  • Drill the word exaggerating the final consonant
  • Give listening discrimination practice
  • Do a controlled practice activity
  • Remind students everyday by writing S or last sound on the board and pointing to it when they make a mistake
what are consonant clusters
What are Consonant Clusters?

a) weeks: /wi:ks/ CVCC

b) months: /mʌnθs/ CVCCC

c) twelfth: /twelfθ/ CCVCCC

Note that all of these words are one syllable.

teaching consonant clusters
Teaching Consonant Clusters

Consonant clusters:

  • Write the word in phonemic script or just practice the individual sounds

M O N T H S

teaching consonant clusters1
Teaching Consonant Clusters

Consonant clusters:

  • Write the word in phonemic script or just practice the individual sounds
  • Drill the word backwards, sound by sound, and build up the word

M O N T H S

teaching consonant clusters2
Teaching Consonant Clusters

Consonant clusters:

  • Write the word in phonemic script or just practice the individual sounds
  • Drill the word backwards, sound by sound, and build up the word
  • Drill the whole word
teaching consonant clusters3
Teaching Consonant Clusters

Consonant clusters:

  • Write the word in phonemic script or just practice the individual sounds
  • Drill the word backwards, sound by sound, and build up the word
  • Drill the whole word
  • Practice

Example: How many months until…?

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