Teaching pronunciation
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Teaching pronunciation. English in the 21 st Century & How to Teach Segmentals. English in the 21 st Century. How many people are there in the world today? How many of them speak English?. English in the 21 st Century. There are over 7 billion people in the world today.

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Teaching pronunciation

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Teaching pronunciation

Teaching pronunciation

English in the 21st Century & How to Teach Segmentals


English in the 21 st century

English in the 21st Century

How many people are there in the world today?

How many of them speak English?


English in the 21 st century1

English in the 21st Century

There are over 7 billion people in the world today.

More than 25% of them speak English fluently or

competently (Crystal 2003, quoted in Jenkins 2007).


English in the 21 st century2

English in the 21st Century

This is BrajKachru’s famous model for understanding how English functions in different countries. (in Crystal, 1995)


English in the 21 st century3

English in the 21st Century

How many users in each circle?

  • 300-500 million in

    inner circle (e.g., US)

  • 320-380 million in

    outer circle (e.g., India)

  • 500 million – 1 billion in expanding circle (e.g., VN)

    (Figures from Crystal, 2003,

    quoted in Jenkins, 2007)


English in the 21 st century4

English in the 21st Century


Teaching pronunciation

So why am I telling you this

on the day we are talking about teaching pronunciation?


Nativeness versus intelligibility

Nativeness versus Intelligibility

  • Nativeness principle: the goal of pronunciation teaching is for learner to achieve native-like pronunciation in the target language

  • Intelligibility principle: the goal of pronunciation teaching is for learners to be understood when speaking


Nativeness versus intelligibility1

Nativeness versus Intelligibility

Which is more important and realistic in your context?


Does being a native speaker make a person a good pronunciation teacher

Does being a native speaker make a person a good pronunciation teacher?

  • Go to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lz0IT4Uk2xQ to see the video!


Teaching pronunciation

Does being a native speaker make a person a good pronunciation teacher?

What are some advantages NNESTs (non native English speaking teachers) have over NESTs (native English speaking teachers)?


Teaching segmentals vowel sounds

Teaching Segmentals: Vowel Sounds

  • What English vowels are difficult for you to pronounce? Which are easy?

  • What strategies have you or your past English teachers used to improve your production of English vowel sounds? Which ones were the most successful?


Common vowel problems

Common Vowel Problems

  • /iy/ vs. /ɪ/seat/sit, sheep/ship

  • /ɛ/ vs. /æ/vet/vat, pest/past

  • /ʌ/ vs. /ʊ/buck/book, cud/could


Teaching vowels iy vs

Teaching Vowels: /iy/ vs. /ɪ/

  • What do you already know about these sounds?


Teaching vowels iy vs1

Teaching Vowels: /iy/ vs. /ɪ/

  • Help Ss understand the mouth position


Teaching vowels iy vs2

Teaching Vowels: /iy/ vs. /ɪ/

  • Help Ss understand the mouth position

  • Exaggerate and use movement to help them pronounce the sound correctly


Teaching vowels iy vs3

Teaching Vowels: /iy/ vs. /ɪ/

  • Help Ss understand the mouth position

  • Exaggerate and use movement to help them pronounce the sound correctly

  • Drill using minimal pairs

    SLEEP SLIP

    GREEN GRIN

    LEAVE LIVE

    EAT IT


Teaching vowels iy vs4

Teaching Vowels: /iy/ vs. /ɪ/

  • Help Ss understand the mouth position

  • Exaggerate and use movement to help them pronounce the sound correctly

  • Drill using minimal pairs

  • Give listening discrimination practice


Listening discrimination

Listening Discrimination

Directions: 1) copy the words; 2) listen to the teacher (or recording) say the words and mark the one you hear.

1. ___ SLEEP ___ SLIP

2. ___ GREEN ___ GRIN

3. ___ LEAVE ___ LIVE

4. ___ EAT ___ IT


Teaching vowels iy vs5

Teaching Vowels: /iy/ vs. /ɪ/

  • Help Ss understand the mouth position

  • Exaggerate and use movement to help them pronounce the sound correctly

  • Drill using minimal pairs

  • Give listening discrimination practice

  • Do controlled practice activities

    Example: What’s Your Phone Number


What s your phone number

What’s Your Phone Number

0- sleep 1- slip

2- green 3- grin

4- leave 5- live

6- eat 7- it

8- seat 9- sit


Teaching segmentals consonant sounds

Teaching Segmentals: Consonant Sounds

  • What English consonant sounds are difficult for you to pronounce? Which are easy?

  • What strategies have you or your past English teachers used to improve your production of English consonant sounds? Which ones were the most successful?


Common consonant problems

Common Consonant Problems

  • /p/ vs. /b/pat/bat, pour/bore

  • /g/ vs. /k/gut/cut, gain/cane

  • Final consonants false

  • Consonant clusters months


Teaching consonants p vs b

Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/

  • What do you already know about these sounds?


Teaching consonants p vs b1

Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/

  • Instruct Ss about how to form the sounds

    • Show a picture or exaggerate your mouth position


Teaching consonants p vs b2

Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/

  • Instruct Ss about how to form the sounds

    • Show a picture or exaggerate your mouth position

    • Practice voiced and unvoiced by touching your vocal chords


Teaching consonants p vs b3

Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/

  • Instruct Ss about how to form the sounds

    • Show a picture or exaggerate your mouth position

    • Practice voiced and unvoiced by touching your vocal chords

    • Use a piece of paper to demonstrate aspiration


Teaching consonants p vs b4

Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/

  • Instruct Ss about how to form the sounds

  • Drill using minimal pairs

    PAT BAT

    PIE BUY

    PIG BIG

    PAIR BEAR

    POOR BORE

    TAP TAB


Teaching consonants p vs b5

Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/

  • Instruct Ss about how to form the sounds

  • Drill using minimal pairs

  • Give listening discrimination practice

    ___ PIE ___ BUY

    ___ PIG ___ BIG

    ___ POOR ___ BORE

    ___ TAP ___ TAB


Teaching consonants p vs b6

Teaching Consonants: /p/ vs /b/

  • Instruct Ss about how to form the sounds

  • Drill using minimal pairs

  • Give listening discrimination practice

  • Do a controlled practice activity

    Example: Pronunciation Journey


What are final consonants

What are Final Consonants?

  • Is the answer true or false?

  • My favorite color is black.

  • Please send those two emails to me.


Teaching final consonants

Teaching Final Consonants

  • Drill the word exaggerating the final consonant

    BLACK FALSE EMAILS


Teaching final consonants1

Teaching Final Consonants

  • Drill the word exaggerating the final consonant

  • Give listening discrimination practice

    Example: Slap the board


Teaching final consonants2

Teaching Final Consonants

  • Drill the word exaggerating the final consonant

  • Give listening discrimination practice

  • Do a controlled practice activity

    Example: Word Chain


Teaching final consonants3

Teaching Final Consonants

  • Drill the word exaggerating the final consonant

  • Give listening discrimination practice

  • Do a controlled practice activity

  • Remind students everyday by writing S or last sound on the board and pointing to it when they make a mistake


What are consonant clusters

What are Consonant Clusters?

a) weeks:/wi:ks/ CVCC

b) months:/mʌnθs/ CVCCC

c) twelfth: /twelfθ/CCVCCC

Note that all of these words are one syllable.


Teaching consonant clusters

Teaching Consonant Clusters

Consonant clusters:

  • Write the word in phonemic script or just practice the individual sounds

    M O N T H S


Teaching consonant clusters1

Teaching Consonant Clusters

Consonant clusters:

  • Write the word in phonemic script or just practice the individual sounds

  • Drill the word backwards, sound by sound, and build up the word

    M O N T H S


Teaching consonant clusters2

Teaching Consonant Clusters

Consonant clusters:

  • Write the word in phonemic script or just practice the individual sounds

  • Drill the word backwards, sound by sound, and build up the word

  • Drill the whole word


Teaching consonant clusters3

Teaching Consonant Clusters

Consonant clusters:

  • Write the word in phonemic script or just practice the individual sounds

  • Drill the word backwards, sound by sound, and build up the word

  • Drill the whole word

  • Practice

    Example: How many months until…?


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