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Funding. Coordination. Project Management. Structural Approaches – Dikes, Reservoirs and Dams. IMPROVEMENT OF THE GENERAL RESISTANCE OF DIKES AGAINST EROSION DURING DIKE OVERFLOW. Tobias Kubetzek, Jesper Steuernagel, Hendrik Ramm, Nicole Saenger, Ulrich Zanke. Introduction . Introduction

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Funding

Coordination

Project Management

Structural Approaches – Dikes, Reservoirs and Dams

IMPROVEMENT OF THE GENERAL RESISTANCE OF DIKES AGAINST EROSION DURING DIKE OVERFLOW

Tobias Kubetzek, Jesper Steuernagel, Hendrik Ramm, Nicole Saenger, Ulrich Zanke


Introduction

Introduction

Experiment

Set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Urbanization brought a great damage potential to the areas along the rivers and to former floodplains. This trend has not been stopped yet

  • During the last flood periods several dams and dikes broke, causing enormous damage and the loss of many lives

  • As a consequence of the climate change the sea level and the river gauges will rise. Dikes existing could lose their protectional function within the next years

  • In the near future the majority of the German river dikes must be redeveloped

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 2


Introduction

Introduction

Experiment

Set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Dikes effected by overflow must be built as an overflow structure, otherwise overflowing water erodes the top and the landside of the dike

  • In general erosion leads to a quick collapse of the dike

  • Common overflow section of dikes are protected by armourstones or concrete sealing. These methods are not suitable for the long distances of river dikes

  • Conventional structures of geosynthetics are not practicable for redevelopement

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 3


Experiment set-up

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 4


Experiment set-up

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Full scale research dike (dimensions of a common dike along the Rhine, Germany)

  • A closed sheeting and a high capacity propeller pump enable the overtopping of the dike

  • Two experimental areas

  • Weir heads according to the width of the spillway slab

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 5


Experiment set-up

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 6


Experiment set-up

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Revetment with new combinations of geosynthetics

    • Erosion control mat

    • Geogrid (top layer)

    • Non woven geotextile

    • Geogrid (bottom layer)

  • Top soil not as sacrificial layer but as part of the revetment

  • Stable with and without vegetation

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 7


Experiment set-up

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Fixing by pegs

    • State of construction

    • Worst case scenario

  • Stabilization by root penetration

    • Common loading case

    • Difficult to calculate

    • Laboratory test of shear resistance

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 8


Dimensioning

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Erosion of top soil and vegetation

  • Gliding of the top soil on the geosynthetics

  • Gliding of the geosynthetics on the ground

  • Erosion beneath the geosynthetics

  • Failure of the geosynthetics or the anchorage

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 9


Dimensioning

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Erosion of top soil and vegetation

  • Gliding of the topsoil on the geosynthetics

  • Gliding of the geosynthetics on the ground

  • Erosion beneath the geosynthetics

  • Failure of the geosynthetics or the anchorage

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 10


Dimensioning

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Wire heads up to 1.0 m causes shear stresses of approx. 900 N/m²

  • Investigation of heads up to 0.3 m

  • Loads have to be transferred by pegs

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 11


Dimensioning

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Minimization of load-displacement

  • Search for an optimal pitch

    • Reduction of effort while increase in efficiency

    • Reduction of the number of parts lowers the cost of deployment and maintenance

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 12


Dimensioning

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Finite-Element-Method (FEM) simulation of the deformation

    • ABAQUS 2-D-model

  • FEM-simulation of the estimated forces during the overflow

    • ABAQUS 3-D-model

    • Adaption of the peg pitch

    • Adaption of the top anchorage

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 13


Dimensioning

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Starting conditions

    • Peg dimension of 0.5 m length and Ø=12 mm

    • Spillway slab of 20 m to 12 m

    • Starting pitch 1 x 1 m

    • Non-vegetated (worst case) revetment

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 14


Measurement program

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Pressure sensor

    • Indikation of turbulences

  • Area scanner

    • Deformation of the geosynthetics

  • Ground radar

    • Erosion beneath the geosynthetics

    • Change in density of / rearrangement in the subsoil

  • If applicable

    • Resistance strain gauges on the geogrid

  • Turbidity sensor

    • Indication of erosion

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 15


Outlook

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

  • Short-term experiments in 2008

    • Certification of the effectivity of the geosynthetic combination (stability in a worst case scenario)

    • Optimizing the pitch for the pegs

  • Long-term experiment (winter 2008 / spring 2009)

    • Laboratory test of the shear resistance

    • Overflow on the vegetated testing area

    • Experiments with alternative erosion protection measures

  • Aim

    • Consideration of our results in the guidance for the remediation of the river dikes in Hesse, Germany

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 16


End

Introduction

Experiment

set-up

Dimensioning

Measurement program

Outlook

Thank you for your attention

08.10.2014 | Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft | Fachgebiet Wasserbau | Prof. Dr. -Ing habil U. Zanke | Dipl. -Ing. T. Kubetzek | 17


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