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Basic Java Syntax. Comments Basic data types Operators and assignment. Quick Comments. // Works just like in pseudocode // From the double slash to the end of the // line becomes a comment (no semicolon) Also works like: a = b; // This is okay // more later. Pseudocode. Num

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Quick Comments

// Works just like in pseudocode

// From the double slash to the end of the

// line becomes a comment (no semicolon)

Also works like:

a = b; // This is okay

// more later...

Pseudocode

- Num
- Could hold all types of numbers
- Absolutely no rules
- No limits 0 to
- No concerns about precision 3.14159265358979323
- No concerns about accuracy 1/3 = .333333333333

Java

- Two types of numbers
- Whole numbers
- Generically known as integer type numbers

- Fractional numbers
- Typically known as floating point numbers

- Whole numbers
- Why?
- Whole numbers
- Exact
- Compact
- Fast
- Limited size

- Fractional numbers
- Used for “real” world applications
- Much larger range
- Imprecise (?)

- Whole numbers

Characters

- Pseudocode
- char was used to store a single character: ‘A’
- Could be used for sorting: ‘a’ < ‘b’
- No compatibility with numbers

- Java
- char still holds a single character: ‘A’
- Can be used for sorting: ‘a’ < ‘b’
- Internally is actually stored as a number
- e.g. ‘a’ actually stored as 97

- Can do arithmetic! ‘a’ + 1 equals ‘b’

Booleans

- Pseudocode
- TRUE/FALSE

- Java
- true/false

Strings

- Pseudocode
- World’s most fabulous built-in string type!
- Very untypical
- Historically was linked list of characters!
- Too much work for too little benefit
- Remember: Pseudocode can do anything!!!

- Java
- We’ll defer Strings since they are implemented as Objects!

byte

short

int

long

Fractional Numbers

float

double

Characters

char

Booleans

boolean

Relax!!!

We won’t use all of these

Probably just...

In case you’re curious, the next slide shows the technical details! Not important in CS 1311!!!

JavaWatch capitalization!!!

Data Type Ranges

Type

Size

Min

Max

Default

boolean

1

false*

true*

false

char

16

'\u0000' (null)

byte

8

-128

127

(byte) 0

short

16

-32,768

32,767

(short) 0

int

32

-2,147,483,648

2,147,483,647

0

long

64

-9,223,372,036,854,775,808

9,223,372,036,854,775,807

0L

float

32

Approx ±3.4E+38 with 7 significant digits

0.0F

double

64

Approx ±1.7E+308 with 15 significant digits

0.0D

void

* Not truly min and max.

Java

Primitives

Complex

Built-in

byte

short

int

long

float

double

char

boolean

Strings

plus

lots

more!

User defined

n/a

“Classes”

Java

Primitives

Actually

Objects!

Built-in

byte

short

int

long

float

double

char

boolean

Strings

plus

lots

more!

User defined

n/a

“Classes”

The Classic Duality

- Programming languages have always wrestled with the difference between assigning a value and the equality relational operator

- Equality (Boolean Result)
- BASIC A = B
- Pascal A = B
- FORTRAN A .EQ. B
- C A == B
- Pseudocode A = B
- Java A == B

- Assignment
- BASIC LET A = B
- Pascal A := B
- FORTRAN A = B
- C A = B
- Pseudocode A B
- Java A = B

Variable Declarations

- Pseudocode:
- <identifier> isoftype <data type>
- e.g. Count isoftype Num

- Java:
- <datatype> <identifier>;
- e.g. int count;

- or (optional initialization at declaration)
- <data type> <identifier> = <init value>;
- e.g. int count = 100;

- Equivalent to
- int count;
- count = 100;

Declaration Examples

int Counter;

int NumStudents = 583;

double GPA;

double BatAvg = .406;

char Gender;

char Gender = ‘f’;

boolean Safe;

boolean Empty = true;

Assignment Statements

- Pseudocode:
- <recipient> <- <value>
- e.g. Percent <- 100 * fraction

- Java:
- <recipient> = <value>;
- e.g. Percent = 100 * fraction;

Note: In Java, we distinguish this use of ‘=‘ from the equality test by using ‘==‘ to test for equality

e.g. if( Percent == 50 ) ...

Assignment Examples

- Note that whole integers appearing in your source code are taken to be ‘ints’. So, you might wish to flag them when assigning to non-ints:
double maxGrade = 100d; // now holds ‘100.0’

double temp = 583d; // holds double precision 583

double temp = 583. // Note decimal point

float fTemp = 5.5; // ERROR!

// Java thinks 5.5 is a double

- Upper and lower case letters can be used for ‘float’ (F or f), ‘double’ (D or d), and ‘long’ (l or L, but always use L):
float maxGrade = 100F; // now holds ‘100.0’

long x = 583l; // holds 583, but looks like 5,381

long y = 583L; // Ah, much better!

Casting

- In Pseudocode we had a simple rule
- NO TYPE MISMATCHING!!!
- In other words:
- A <- B
- Required that A and B be the same type
- Num, Char, Boolean, String, Ptr

- Most (if not all) real languages realize that it is often necessary to convert from one type to another. Two ways...
- Do it automatically
- Enforce typing rules

Casting

- In Java two things can happen when you type mismatch
- The compiler will realize that you may be losing information and give you an error
- The compiler may know how to make the conversion with no problem

- Example
float f = 123.0F;

double d = 123.0;

f = d; // ERROR

d = f; // No problem

It is possible to override this behavior!

f = (float)d; // Note: d is unchanged.

Casting!

Casting

- It gets trickier!
- Suppose we want to divide two ints
int a = 5;

int b = 2;

float f;

f = a/b;

f = ?

- But what if I want the decimals?
- One solution
float fa = a;

float fb = b;

f = fa/fb;

f = ?

- Or we could do: f = (float)a/(float)b;
- Note: f = (float)(a/b);
- // doesn’t solve problem...

Operators

- Arithmetic: +, -, *, /, % (mod), etc.
Example: x = (a + b)/(c + d);

- Relational: >, <, >=, <=,
!= instead of <>

== instead of =

Example: boolean quit = (index == 100);

- Boolean:
AND becomes &&

OR becomes ||

NOT becomes !

if( !quit || (index < 5) ) {

// do something

}

Note: these must

be double: && ||

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