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The World Wars. T/F. World War I was fought in Europe and Asia. T/F. Hitler ruled Germany during WWI. T/F. Soldiers fought in trenches during WWI. T/F. The United States was bombed at Pearl Harbor during WWII by the Germans. T/F.

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The World Wars

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The World Wars


World War I was fought in Europe and Asia


Hitler ruled Germany during WWI


Soldiers fought in trenches during WWI


The United States was bombed at Pearl Harbor during WWII by the Germans


Machine guns and poisonous gasses are introduced as weapons during WWI


The United States and its allies won in both WWI and WWII

The World Wars


Map 1: Europe: Before the World Wars



World War I

Art and Literature


Map 2: Europe between the Wars

Hitler’s Rise to Power

Hitler’s Germany

Between the Wars

CausesWarfare Causes Warfare

In Europe

World War II

In Asia

Map 3: Europe after World War II

Results Results

Essential Questions

Map – Europe Before the World Wars


Central Powers

Great Britain







Ottoman Empire


1920-1940Global Economic Depression

1914-1918 World War I

1939-1945 World War II

1945→ Cold War










May 1945 – Germany surrenderedAugust 1945 – Japan surrendered

1914 Archduke Ferdinand Assassinated WW I began

1917 U.S. entered the war

1918 Russia got out of the war

1919 Treaty of Versailles

1941 – Japan attacked Pearl Harbor: U.S. enters WW II

1933 – Hitler became the leader of Germany

1939 – Hitler Invaded Poland:WW II began

1935-1939 – Germany took back lands lost in WW I

1935-1941 – Japan took more lands in Asia

  • Timeline – The World Wars

V. World War I

Causes of World War I – MAIN A

  • Militarism – New technologies encouraged nations to develop and stockpile more weapons – Led to WWI

Stop and Think!

  • Partner A: What is militarism?

  • Partner B: How did this lead up to WWI?

Causes of World War I – MAIN A

  • Alliances – to keep balance of power – nations teamed up for or against one another (Central Powers/Triple Alliance – Allied Powers/Triple Entente) – Led to WWI


Stop and Think!

Partner A: What is a military alliance?

Partner B: How did these alliances cause WWI?

Causes of World War I – MAIN A

  • Imperialism – nations competed to gain territories and resources. Germany took land from

    France (Alsace and

    Lorraine) creating conflict

    between them.

    Led to WWI

Stop and Think!

  • Partner A: What is imperialism?

  • Partner B: How did imperialism lead up to WWI?

Causes of World War I – MAIN A

  • National Rivalries –a uniting and dividing force, nations became proud of their land and culture and were willing to fight for it.

Stop and Think!

  • Partner A: What does nationalism mean?

  • Partner B: How did nationalism lead up to WWI?

Stop and Think

  • M – Partner A explain to Partner B what the “M” stands for

  • A – Partner B explain what the “A” stands for

  • I – Partner A

  • N – Partner B

Create a poster –For each cause of WWI, explain what it means and create a visual.

Militarism - explanation


Imperialism - explanation



Alliances - explanation

Nationalism - explanation


Just prior to World War I, the nations of Europe believed that the balance of power could best be maintained by

1) a system of alliances

2) an international court

3) increases in tariff barriers

4) open agreements, openly arrived at

Growing nationalism and militarism in Europe and the creation of secret alliances were

1) reasons for the rise of democracy

2) causes of World War I

3) requirements for economic development

4) reasons for the collapse of communism

_______________________________A. Formation of secret alliancesB. Conflict over colonies in AfricaC. Military buildup of European armies and naviesD. Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand

Which title would best complete this partial outline?

1) Scramble for Africa

2) Causes of World War I

3) Results of World War II

4) Reasons for the United Nations

What was a major cause of World War I?

1) rebellions in colonial lands in Africa and Asia

2) expansion of communism into western Europe

3) militarism in the nations of Europe

4) inability of the League of Nations to keep the peace

The term militarism can best be defined as

1) Loyalty to a nation or ethnic group

2) Buildup of armaments in preparation for war

3) Avoidance of military involvement in civil wars

4) Control of territories for economic and political gain

Causes of World War I – MAIN A

  • Assassination – of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria kick

    started the


    immediate cause

    of World War I –


Article Activity

Archduke Newspaper Article

  • With a partner…

    • Create a newspaper article describing the events of the day. Information that must be included:

      • Who he was and why he was there

      • How the terrorist group tried to kill him

      • Who actually killed him and how

    • Along with the article, you must include three scenes in chronological order

For example

Scene 1 – First two terrorists attempting to throw grenades

Scene 2 – Third terrorist throwing his grenade and exploding under the car

Archduke Shot!!!

Today, June 28th, the terrorist group The Black Hand shot and killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian thrown, and his pregnant wife Sophia. He had come to Sarajevo to inspect the Austro-Hungarian troops there. The terrorists saw this as a perfect opportunity to try and get rid of him. As his car traveled down the city streets of Sarajevo, two men were going to throw grenades but the streets were too crowded. A third terrorist was successful in throwing his grenade but it exploded under the car injuring several of the Archduke’s attendants. Finally, on his way to visit his injured attendants at the hospital after lunch, his driver made a wrong turn and as he began to reverse, Gavrilo Princip fired two shots, one in the stomach of pregnant Sophia killing her and her unborn baby almost instantly. The second shot hit the Archduke in the neck, killing him a short time later. Princip will not receive the death penalty because he is too young, but he was sentenced to twenty years in prison.

Scene 3 – Archduke and wifey shot

The caskets of the husband and wife

Which statement is best supported by the data contained in the table?

1) Austria-Hungary could not afford a large military expenditure in 1880.

2) France spent the greatest amount of money on defense in 1900.

3) Germany rapidly increased its military spending after 1890.

4) Great Britain attempted to prepare for a long ground war.

What was the immediate cause of World War I in Europe?

1) start of the civil war in Russia

2) sinking of the British liner, Lusitania

3) assassination of the heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

4) attack on Poland by the German army

Type of Warfare

  • Trench: Soldiers fought, lived, and died in ditches, called trenches, on two fronts

    • Eastern Front – Russia

    • Western Front - France

Reading activity

Type of Warfare

  • New technologies: New weapons (machine gun, grenades, flame thrower, tank, poison gas) - very effective against old style strategies.

New weapons activity

Trench warfare is a phrase that best describes which event:

1. Imperialism3. World War I

2. World War II4. The Holocaust

Type of Warfare

  • Women contributed to the war effort

U.S. Position

  • The United States remained “neutral” for the first years of the war. The sinking of the Lusitaniadrug the U.S. into the war.

The sinking of the Lusitania was significant enough for the United States to enter WWI


Stop and Think!

  • Everyone: Explain to your partner whether you think the statement was true or false. If true, what could the U.S. government do to rally support for their cause?

Art and Literature

  • Propaganda: organized information meant to sway public opinion on a certain issue

Current Propaganda

  • Subway

  • McDonalds

  • Army

Who is represented by the “Mad Brute?”

What is the purpose of this poster?

Who are the three men supposed to represent?

What is the purpose of this poster?

Who is this man supposed to represent?

What is the purpose of this poster?

Art and Literature

  • All Quiet on the Western Front:

    • Novel about life for soldiers during WWI

    • Put-down glory of war

Closure – Propaganda Poster

  • Partner As will create a propaganda poster trying to gather U.S. support to enter the war.

  • Partner Bs will create a poster trying to gather German support to continue the war.

Results of World War I

  • Treaty of Versailles:

    1) ended WWI 2) led to WWII

    3) Established League of Nations

  • Severely punished Germany:

    • Land taken away in Europe – its colonies in Africa and Asia too!

    • Paycompensation for damage caused by WWI

    • Militaryreducedto defense purposes only

    • Acceptblamefor WWI

Stop and Think!

  • Partner A: What officially ended WWI?

  • Partner B: Who was punished the most?

  • Partner A: Give one punishment

  • Partner B: Give another punishment

Which idea was included in the provision of the Treaty of Versailles to show the intent of the Allies to punish the Central Powers for their role in World War I?

1) All nations shall maintain open covenants of peace.

2) Freedom of the seas will be maintained.

3) Germany will accept full responsibility for causing the war.

4) Territorial settlements shall be made along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.

The Treaty of Versailles contributed to the economic collapse of Germany after World War I by

1) mandating economic reforms in Germany

2) requiring that Germany pay for war damages

3) placing a quota on goods exported from Germany

4) devaluing German currency

The Treaty of Versailles punished Germany for its role in World War I by

1) forcing Germany to accept blame for the war and to pay reparations

2) dividing Germany into four occupied zones

3) supporting economic sanctions by the United Nations

4) taking away German territory in the Balkans and Spain

What was a direct result of World War I?

1) Nicholas II was named czar of Russia.

2) Germany lost its colonies in Africa and Asia.

3) Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a terrorist.

4) The Ottoman Empire expanded.

The Treaty of Versailles angered many Germans after World War I because the treaty

1) divided Germany into Communist and non-Communist zones

2) made Germany restore its emperor

3) required all German-speaking Europeans to return to Germany

4) forced Germany to pay large war reparations

Many historians believe that the harsh terms found in the Treaty of Versailles helped lead to

1) Italy’s unification

2) Turkey’s modernization

3) revolutions in Russia

4) World War II

League of Nations

  • Organization of nations created to keep peace in the world – encouraged by President Woodrow Wilson but U.S.A. never joined – turned out to be very ineffective.

One goal of the League of Nations was to

1) Promote peaceful relations worldwide

2) Stimulate the economy of Europe

3) Bring World War I to an end

4) Encourage a strong alliance system

President Woodrow Wilson's ideals were best represented in the Treaty of Versailles in its provisions calling for the

1) division of German colonies among the Allies

2) acceptance by Germany of full responsibility for World War I

3) establishment of a general association of the world's nations – the League of Nations

4) payment of reparations to the Allies by Germany

New Map of Europe

  • Larger nations (that lost in WWI) were broken up into smaller nations


“Baltic States”

Great Britain









Map – Europe Between the World Wars

The countries shown in dark gray on this map can best be described as

1) Triple Alliance members before World War I

2) European countries formed immediately after World War I

3) Axis powers during World War II

4) Common Market members after World War II

VI. Europe Between the World Wars

Hitler’s Rise to Power - Reasons

  • Economic Environment: Germany’s economy in very bad shape after WWI

    • Treaty of Versailles: Germany paid millions to other nations for WWI damages

    • World Economic Depression: people lost savings, business failed, Germany’s money became worthless

Stop and Think!

  • Partner A: Give one reason why German’s economy was in bad shape

  • Partner B: Give the other

Reasons why Hitler came to power in Germany

  • Weimer Republic government before Hitler; weak and ineffective

  • Promise to improve economy

    • Stop paying for WWI

    • Jobs – military and factory (military supplies)

  • Get Germany’s pride back

    • Get land back

    • Develop a German cultural identity

      • Anti-Semitism (hatred of the Jews)

      • Anti-Communism

Stop and Think!

  • Partner A: Give one reason Hitler was able to gain influence over the German people

  • Partner B: Give another

  • Partner A: Give another

  • Partner B: Give another

Give One Get One

  • Write down as many things in 60 seconds as you can that you know about World War II.

Hitler’s Germany

  • Totalitarian Government

    • A type of government that has

      totalcontrol of all aspects of life,

      ex. Hitler – Nazi Germany,

      Mussolini – Fascist Italy,

      Stalin – Communist USSR

    • Fascism: A type of government that is totalitarian and very nationalistic (a lot of national pride). Examples: Germany, Italy, Spain

    • Nazi’s ideas: totalitarian and nationalistic type of government

      • Promote the Aryan “race”

        • Nuremburg laws

      • Expansion of territory in Europe

      • Used propaganda extensively

Stop and Think!

  • Partner A: What is a totalitarian government?

  • Partner B: Who are the three leaders of totalitarian governments provided and which countries did they lead?

  • Partner A: What is fascism?

  • Partner B: What were the Nazi’s ideas?

Which leader is most closely associated with the rise of fascism in Italy prior to World War II?

  • Ho Chi Minh

  • Winston Churchill

  • Mao Zedong

  • Benito Mussolini

Which was the major reason for the rise of dictatorships in Europe in the two decades following World War I?

1. general illiteracy of the working class

2. stresses caused by the constant threat ofrenewed warfare

3. destruction of homes and factories during World War I

4. widespread economic disorder

Adolf Hitler was aided in his rise to power by the

1. support of the French government

2. support of the Communist Party in Germany

3. economic problems of post-World War I Germany

4. imperialist policy of the Weimar Republic

Totalitarian societies in the 20th century could be most consistently identified by their

1. unwillingness to allow free elections

2. acceptance of a variety of political beliefs

3. support for a state-controlled religion

4. denial of public education to their citizens

". . . The key-stone of the Fascist doctrine is its conception of the State, of its essence, its functions, and its aims. For Fascism the State is absolute, individuals and groups relative. Individuals and groups are admissible in so far as they come within the State. Instead of directing the game and guiding the material and moral progress of the community, the liberal State restricts its activities to recording results. The Fascist State is wide awake and has a will of its own. For this reason it can be described as 'ethical'. . . ."

- Benito Mussolini, Fascism: Doctrine and Institutions, Howard Fertig, 1932

Which statement expresses the main idea of the passage?

1. The people have a right to overthrow ineffective governments.

2. The state is more important than the individuals within it.

3. The state gets its authority from the power of individuals.

4. The establishment of an empire will cause division and chaos.

A map showing the growth of Nazi Germany by September 1939. Once Hitler had firm control over a renewed Germany and had found that the other powers were willing to appease him, Hitler became more aggressive. In 1936 he reclaimed the demilitarized Rhineland, violating the treaties of Versailles and Locarno; in 1938 he invaded Austria and annexed the Sudetenland; in March 1939 he occupied the Czech lands, and in August of that year he signed a non-aggression plan with Russia which included a clause that divided eastern Europe into German and Russian zones. Then he conquered Poland in September 1939.


Only Jewish people were sent to camps


The Holocaust only occurred in Germany


Anti-Semitism is the hatred of Jews


The Nazis appealed mostly to middle class, the lower class, the unemployed, etc.

The Holocaust

  • Genocide – mass killing of an entire culture of people

Stop and Think!

  • Partner A: What is genocide?

  • Partner B: How is the Holocaust an example of genocide?

Armenian Massacre during WWI

Genocide in Darfur

The Holocaust

  • Hitler’s Plan

    • Harass the Jews – restrict their rights

    • The Nuremberg Laws (Don’t have to write the white)

      • Excluded German Jews from citizenship

      • Prohibited German Jews from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of “German or related blood”

      • Deprived of most political rights

      • Jewish businesses were taken over by non-Jewish people

      • Everyone was required to carry an ID card, but theirs specified them as Jews

    • Gather them into “Concentration Camps”

    • “Final Solution” – total extermination of the Jewish people

Stop and Think!

  • Partner A: What was the first step in Hitler’s plan?

  • Partner B: What was the purpose of the Nuremburg laws?

  • Partner A: What was the purpose of the concentration camps?

  • Partner B: What was the final solution?

How does this demonstrate the significance of the Holocaust?

The Holocaust

Web quest

VII. World War II in Europe - Causes

  • German aggression – Germany attempted to get lands they lost in WWI (other lands as well)

  • Failure of League of Nations – had no power to stop Germany’s actions

  • Appeasement – Britain and France allowed Germany to get what it wanted (lands) – to prevent war

    • Rhineland

    • Austria

    • Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)

    • Poland (started WWII)

Stop and Think

  • Partner A: One cause of WWII

  • Partner B: Another cause

  • Partner A: The 3rd cause

  • Based on the information provided by the diagram, which

  • statement is a valid conclusion about the 1930s?

  • The United States led international peacekeeping efforts.

  • Aggression led to the start of World War II.

  • The actions of Italy, Germany, and Japan united Europe.

  • Economic and social upheaval led to the rise of democracy

  • in Asia.

The Japanese, the Germans, and the Italians pursued a policy of expansionism before World War II to gain

1. natural resources

2. warm-water ports

3. manufacturing plants

4. freedom of the seas

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and Hitler's rebuilding of the German military in 1935 demonstrate the

1. success of defensive alliances

2. fear of communist expansion

3. support for the Treaty of Versailles

4. failure of the League of Nations

The termappeasementis best defined as

1. an attempt to avoid conflict by meeting the demands of an aggressor

2. a period of peace and prosperity, resulting in cultural achievement

3. a declaration of war between two or more nations

4. an agreement removing economic barriers between nations

Before September 1939, the European response to Hitler’s actions included

  • Following a policy of appeasement

  • Blockading the coast of Germany

  • Forcing Germany to sign the Versailles Treaty

  • Creating alliances under the United Nations Charter

When some European leaders agreed to Hitler’s demands concerning Czechoslovakia in 1938, they were supporting a policy of

1. détente

2. balance of power

3. collective security

4. appeasement

Before World War II, Great Britain adopted a policy of appeasement in order to

1. form an alliance with Italy

2. promote democracy in eastern Europe

3. avoid war with Germany

4. demilitarize the frontiers of France and the Soviet Union


  • Mobile warfare: modern technology created quick transportation (airplanes, motor vehicles, ships). “Blitzkrieg” – sudden, fast and overwhelming attacks, tactic used by Germans


  • Technologies:

    • Airplanes: dominant weapon of WWII

    • Tanks: allowed quick and powerful movement

    • Rockets: Germans invented and used them a bit – not very effective in WWII

    • Radar: used to find enemies’ airplanes

Key Events

  • Invasion of Poland: brought Britain and France into the war against Germany (immediate cause of WWII)

  • Battle of Britain: air war for control of Britain

  • D-Day: allied invasion of European continent (in France), began to pushing Germans back into Germany

Which event is most closely associated with the start of World War II in Europe?

1. invasion of Poland by Nazi forces

2. signing of the Munich Agreement

3. building of the Berlin Wall

4. assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand


  • Germany:

    • Divided up by

      allies into 4 zones

    • Nuremberg Trials:

      German officials

      tried for “Crimes Against Humanity”


  • Loss of old European colonies around the world

  • The United Nations created to replace the League of Nations and keep peace

  • Cold War heightened tensions between the US and the USSR

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and Hitler's rebuilding of the German military in 1935 demonstrate the

1. success of defensive alliances

2. fear of communist expansion

3. support for the Treaty of Versailles

4. failure of the League of Nations








Great Britain


East Germany

West Germany
















Map – Europe After the World Wars


VIII. World War II in Asia - Causes

  • Japanese imperialism – 1937, Japan took over areas of China (Japan needed raw materials) – Failure of League of Nations

  • What is the best title for this map?

  • Dominance of Manchukuo

  • Japanese Imperial Expansion

  • East Asian Trade Routes

  • Natural Resources of China and Japan

VIII. World War II in Asia - Causes

  • Pearl Harbor – Japan attacked US on December 7th, 1941 (to keep US from stopping imperialist plans)

The Destruction (Don’t have to write)

  • 4 navy battleships sank and 4 more damaged

  • 3 cruisers, 3 destroyers, and 1 minelayer destroyed or damaged

  • 188 aircraft destroyed

  • 2,402 killed and 1,282 wounded

USS Arizona

  • 1,177 crewmen lost their lives on this ship alone

Yes or No

If you were a member of Congress at this time, would you have voted yes or no in declaring war on Japan?

Stop and Think!

  • Each partner: explain why you either said yes or no.

  • Partner A: How is Pearl Harbor similar to 9/11?

  • Partner B: How are kamakazi pilots similar to more recent suicide bombers?

During The War

  • Japanese Abuses: used cruel methods to keep control of lands:

    • Rape of Nanking: hundreds of thousands of innocent Chinese tortured and killed

    • Bataan Death March: US prisoners of war tortured and killed on a long march to prison camps


Stop and Think!

  • Partner A: What was the Rape of Nanking?

  • Partner B: What was the Bataan Death March?

  • Partner A: How are the Japanese soldiers at this time similar to those of Germany?

  • Partner B: What do you think should be the consequence of Japanese soldiers involved in the Rape of Nanking and the Bataan Death March?

During The War

  • Island Hopping:

    • Term used to describe US plan to defeat Japan

    • Control of an island let US control lots of territory

  • Atomic Bomb:

    • US bombed two Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    • Japan surrendered – ending WWII


  • Japan occupied by US Army for 7 years

  • US forced Japan to create a democratic style government (emperor allowed to stay but had no real power – no “divide” connection

  • US provided economic help to rebuild Japan. Why? US wanted Japan on their side in coming Cold War

Stop and Think!

  • Partner A: What was one result of WWII in Asia?

  • Partner B: What was another?

  • Partner A: What was another?

  • Partner B: Do you think these are appropriate consequences for Japan?

Essential Questions

1) How were the results of World War I directly related to the causes of World War II in Europe?

  • WW IThe severe punishment of Germany led to:An environment in Germany that allowed Hitler to rise to power

  • WW IIHitler’s reasons to rebuild an army and take over lands

2. How did the memories of World War I lead some European nations to allow German aggression?

  • They appeased Hitler in order to prevent another world war

3. How did Hitler use the social, economic and political conditions in Germany after World War I to help him rise to power?

  • He made promises to make German life better

  • The promises got him elected to power

4. How did the relationship between a government and an individual citizen differ when comparing Hitler’s Germany and Western Democracies?

  • Western Democracy → government exists at the consent of the people

  • Hitler’s Germany → people exist to support the government

5. In what way did each of the allies view their contribution as essential to the war effort?

  • Britain: fought alone at first – stayed throughout the war

  • USSR: fought Germany while Britain and the U.S. got ready to fight

  • United States: their involvement turned the tide of the war in favor of the allies

Yes or No

A well organized essay has an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion

Yes or No

A well written essay has run on sentences, sentence fragments, and misspelled words.

Yes or No

A well written essay includes examples and details that support the answer.

Yes or No

A well written essay uses abbreviations such as JK, W/, W/O, etc.

Yes or No

A well written essay included personal pronouns such as I, you, we, me.

Exemplars – hyperlink!

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