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Introduction to Human Anatomy & Physiology. ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 1. Anatomy is the branch of science that deals with the structure (morphology) of body parts– their forms and arrangements. 2. Physiology is concerned with the functions of body parts—what they

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Introduction to Human Anatomy & Physiology

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Introduction to Human Anatomy & Physiology


1. Anatomy is the branch of science that deals with the structure

(morphology) of body parts– their forms and arrangements.

2. Physiology is concerned with the functions of body parts—what they

do and how they do it.

3. It is difficult to separate the topics of anatomy and physiology because

the structures of body parts are so closely associated with their



1. The traits that humans share with other organisms:

a. movement- self initiated change in position (motion)

b. responsiveness- ability to sense and react to change

c. growth- increase in body size without changing shape

d. reproduction- process of making a new individual

e. respiration- process of obtaining oxygen

f. digestion- process by which various food substances are chemically

changed into simpler forms

g. absorption- passages of substances through membranes

h. circulation- movement of substances from place to place within the body

i. assimilation- changing of absorbed substances

j. excretion- removal of wastes

2. Each of these characteristics of life depends upon physical and chemical changes that

occur within the body; these changes are referred to as metabolism.


A. Needs of organisms include: water, food, oxygen, heat, and pressure

1. Although organisms need the above materials, this alone does not ensure survival.

B. Homeostasis is the tendency to maintain a stable internal environment.

1. Homeostasis mechanisms help regulate body temperature and blood pressure.

2. If an organism is to survive, the conditions within its body fluids must remain

relatively stable.


1. The body is composed of parts that occupy different levels of organization.

a. material substances are composed of atoms

b. atoms join together to form molecules

c. organelles contain groups of large molecules

d. cells, which are composed of organelles, are the basic units of structure and

function within the body

e. cells are organized into tissues

f. tissues are organized into organs

g. organs that function closely together comprise organ systems

h. organ systems constitute the organism


1. The Human Organism is a complex structure composed of many

parts. Its major features include several Body Cavities, layers of

membranes within these cavities, and a variety of organ systems.

A. Body Cavities

1. The human organism can be divided into an axial portion, which

includes the head, neck, and trunk and an appendicular portion,

which includes the arms and legs

2. The axial portion of the body contains the dorsal and ventral cavities

a. dorsal includes the cranial and spinal cavities

b. ventral includes the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

3. Thoracic and abdominopelvic membranes

a. Thoracic membranes

1. pleural membranes line the thoracic cavity and cover the lungs

2. mediastinum separates the thoracic cavity into right and left


3. pericardial membranes surround the heart and cover its


b. Abdominopelvic membranes

1. peritoneal membranes line the abdominopelvic cavity and

cover the organs inside

B. Organ Systems

1. The human organism consists of several organ systems.

2. Body Covering:

a. integumentary system include the skin and various accessory

organs such as the hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands

1. protect underlying tissues, help regulate body temperature, house

sensory receptors, and synthesize certain products

3. Support and Movement

a. skeletal system is composed of bones, cartilages, and the

ligaments that bind bones together

1. provides a framework, protective shields, and attachments for

muscles; it also produces blood cells and stores inorganic salts

b. muscular system includes the muscles of the body

1. responsible for body movements, the maintenance of posture,

and production of body heat

4. Integration and Coordination

a. nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and

sense organs

1. functions to receive impulses from sensory parts, interpret these

impulses, and act on them by causing muscles or glands to


b. endocrine system consists of glands that secrete hormones

1. hormones help regulate metabolism

2. includes the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands;

the pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, and thymus gland

5. Processing and Transporting

a. digestive system receives foods, converts food molecules into

forms that can pass through cell membranes, and eliminates

materials that are not absorbed; produce hormones

1. includes the mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx,

esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and

large intestines

b. respiratory system provides for the intake and output of air and for

the exchange of gases between the air and the blood

1. includes the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and


c. circulatory system transport oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and


1. includes the heart, which pumps the blood and blood vessels,

which carry blood to and from the body parts

d. lymphatic system is composed of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes,

thymus, and spleen

1. transports lymph from the tissues to the bloodstream and aids

aids in defending the body against disease causing agents

e. urinary system includes the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and


1. filters wastes from the blood and helps maintain water and

electrolyte balance

f. reproduction systems are concerned with the production of new


1. male reproductive system includes the scrotum, testes, urethra,

and penis, which produce, maintain, and transport male sex cells

2. female reproductive system includes ovaries, uterine tubes,

uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulva, which produce, maintain, and

transport female sex cells


1. Terms with precise meanings are used to help investigators

communicate effectively.

2. The anatomical position is standing erect, the face is forward, and the

arms are at the sides, with the palms forward

a. relative position terms are used to describe the location of one part with

respect to another part

b. body sections are planes along which the body may be cut to observe to

relative locations and arrangements of internal parts

c. body regions are various body regions are designated by special terms

Quick Review

Answers must be in complete sentences.

Read over the Introduction on page 2 in your textbook and answer questions 1 and 2.

What factors probably stimulated an early interest in the human body?

What idea sparked the beginning of modern science?

How are the characteristics of life related to metabolism?

Why is homeostasis important to survival?

What is meant by visceral organs?

What organs occupy the dorsal cavity?

Name the cavities of the head.

Describe the general function of each organ system.

Describe the anatomical position.

Describe three types of body sections.

Quiz Tomorrow (Tuesday, January 12, 2010)

Lecture Notes:

You must know the following info

~Difference between anatomy and physiology

~The characteristics of life

~Levels of organization

~The body parts that make up the axial and appendicular portion

~Body cavities and their membranes

~The function of each organ system

Short Answers Use complete sentences

Define anatomy and physiology.

List and describe the (8) levels of organization.

Several pairs of structures are given next. In each case, choose the one that meets the condition given first.

a. Distal– the knee/the foot

b. Lateral– the cheekbone/the nose

c. Superior– the neck/the chin

d. Anterior– the heel/the toenails

e. External– the skin/the skeletal muscles

At the Clinic Use complete sentences

A nurse informed John that she was about to take blood from his antecubital region. What part of the body was she referring to? Later, she came back and said she was going to give him an antibiotic shot in the deltoid region. Did he take off his shirt or drop his pants to get the shot? Before John left the office, the nurse noticed that his left sural region was badly bruised. What part of the body was bruised?

5. Jennie Dip fell of her motorcycle and tore a nerve in her axillary region. She also tore ligaments in her cervical and scapular regions and broke the only bone of her right branchial region. Explain where each of her injuries is located.

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