Authoritarianism
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 8

Authoritarianism PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 93 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Single individual or small elite rules without constitutional checks on power no independent courts of law or effective free and fair elections; no accountability Primary form of government through most of recorded history

Download Presentation

Authoritarianism

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Authoritarianism

  • Single individual or small elite rules without constitutional checks on power

    • no independent courts of law or effective free and fair elections; no accountability

  • Primary form of government through most of recorded history

    • Early based on “divine right of kings”; authority derived from hereditary bloodline

    • Modern increasingly claims to represent will of the people

Authoritarianism


Persistent authoritarianism

  • 1974-2000, number of authoritarian regimes fell dramatically

    • Every Arab country in Middle East is authoritarian

    • Many African states authoritarian

    • China (world’s most populous country) has authoritarian government

    • Many “democratizing” countries returned to authoritarianism (e.g., Russia)

  • Types = Monarchy, Military, Single-Party, Electoral Authoritarian (most common form)

Persistent Authoritarianism


Monarchies

  • Political authority bestowed based on hereditary connection to royal bloodline (e.g., Saudi Arabia, Jordan)

  • Seek legitimacy through:

    • Long-standing tradition

    • Effective rulers who promote well-being of subjects (“good king/queen”)

    • Repression through security forces

Monarchies


Military regimes

  • Political authority held by group of military officers who influence policy by using, threatening to use military force (e.g., 1960-1970s, South Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Chile, etc.)

  • Seek legitimacy through:

    • Promise return to democratic rule

    • Hold elections with military party competing

    • Defend nation from domestic or foreign threats

    • Martial law

    • Policies to benefit particular groups in society

Military Regimes


Single party regimes

  • Political authority held by one party, which controls access to political office and policy-making

  • Three main types:

    • Communist (e.g., China, North Korea, Vietnam, Cuba)

      • Seek legitimacy through Marxist ideology, nationalism, internal and external threats (maintain power through force against opponents, state ownership of economy, state-sponsored organizations for workers, youth, & women, policies to benefit key social groups)

    • Fascist (e.g., 1930s Germany and Italy)

      • Centralization and command of individual leader; charismatic leader represents will of people; ultranationalism (“organic nation”); minorities not tolerated; use of violence and restrictions on civil and political rights

    • Nationalist (e.g., many post-colonial African countries)

Single-Party Regimes


Electoral authoritarian regimes

  • Hold regularly scheduled elections, allow for multiple parties to compete; elections strongly tilted in favor of ruling party (e.g., Russia, Malaysia, Egypt)

  • Seek legitimacy through:

    • Regularly scheduled multiparty elections

    • Raising living standards

    • Market-oriented economic reforms

    • Coercion to control groups

Electoral Authoritarian Regimes


Evaluating authoritarianism

  • Mixed record with homicide, infant mortality, and adult literacy rates

  • Polity IV ranks democracy on a -10 (authoritarian) to +10 (democratic) scale

    • Monarchies = lowest democracy ratings overall (-10)

    • Military regimes = on average (-4)

    • Communist single-party regimes = (-7)

    • Electoral authoritarian regimes = range (-3 to +5)

Evaluating Authoritarianism


Conclusions

  • Types of feasible authoritarian regimes have been narrowed

  • Democracy only widely accepted way of gaining political legitimacy, even in authoritarian regimes

  • Electoral authoritarianism is the most prevalent type

Conclusions


  • Login