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International Bioethics Conference Oviedo Convention in Central and Eastern European Countries. Impact of Oviedo Convention and its Protocols on Legislation and Practices in Georgia. Council of Europe in collaboration with Slovak Medical Association

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International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

International Bioethics Conference

Oviedo Convention in Central and Eastern European Countries

Impact of Oviedo Convention and its Protocols on Legislation and Practices in Georgia

Council of Europe

in collaboration with

Slovak Medical Association

Institute of Medical Ethics and Bioethics n. f.

-------

September 24-25, 2009

Bratislava,

Slovak Republic

Givi Javashvili,

Chairman, National Council on Bioethics

National Expert to the Steering Committee on Bioethics


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Development of Legal and Ethical Framework of Human Rights in the Field of Biomedicine in Georgia

How it evolved in Georgia?

What were contributing factors?

Independence, exposure to universal values: human rights, democracy, autonomy. . .

Integration into international organizations: UN, COE (1999), etc. . .

Reforms within country: orientation towards western standards

Interest of certain groups of professionals within governmental and non-governmental sector


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Development of Legal and Ethical Framework of Human Rights in the Field of Biomedicine in Georgia

How it evolved in Georgia?

How this actually happened?

1995: Drafting group on the law on Human Organ Transplantation: first provisions on human rights in the context of healthcare (however, specifically related to organ transplantation): information, consent, etc. . .

1996: Working group on Health Legislation; drafting framework law for the whole healthcare system -Law of Georgia on Health Care: patient’s rights and doctor-patient relationship regulated first time in Georgia


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Development of Legal and Ethical Framework of Human Rights in the Field of Biomedicine in Georgia

How it evolved in Georgia?

How this actually happened?

1997-98: Group developed into Department of Health Legislation and Bioethics at the National Health Management Center. Department/Group existed until September 2004.

Products: Laws “on Health Care”, “on the Rights of Patients”, “on Human Organ Transplantation”, “Doctor's Professional Activity”, “Biomedical Research on Human Subjects”, “Reproductive Health and Reproductive Rights”; Preparation for ratification of the instruments of the Council of Europe; Regulations on Ethics Committees etc.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Development of Legal and Ethical Framework of Human Rights in the Field of Biomedicine in Georgia

How it evolved in Georgia?

How this actually happened?

Reform of Legislation of Georgia in this sphere started in 1990s (1995-97), before Georgia became the member of the Council of Europe in 1999.

The process of the development of health, biomedicine and human rights legislation in Georgia was greatly exposed to the influence of extensive movement for health care reform in Europe on the national as well as international/regional levels.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Legislation of Georgia in the Sphere of Human Rights and Biomedicine


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

The Internationally Recognised Documents Comprising Conceptual Foundations of Health and Human Rights Legislation of Georgia

The universal Declaration of Human Rights;

Nuremberg Code;

Declaration Of Helsinki: Recommendations Guiding Physicians In Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects; World Medical Association;

International Code of Medical Ethics; World Medical Association;

Principles of Medical Ethics; United Nations;

International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects and International Guidelines for Ethical Review of Epidemiological Studies; CIOMS and WHO;


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

The Internationally Recognised Documents Comprising Conceptual Foundations of Health and Human Rights Legislation of Georgia

ICH Guideline for Good Clinical Practice

A Declaration on the Promotion of Patients' Rights in Europe (WHO);

Council of Europe Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine and its Additional Protocols;

Various Resolutions and Recommendations of Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe and Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Difference: Legal Implication

“Right… is the child of law: from real laws come real rights.”

Jeremy Bentham

1748-1832, English philosopher


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Ratification of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, and

Additional Protocol to The Convention on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Being

Signed on May 11, 2000

Ratified by the Parliament on September 27, 2000

Submitted to Coe on 22 November, 2000

Entered into force on March 1, 2001


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Ratification of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine

Concerning Transplantation of Organs and Tissues of Human Origin

Protocol was signed on 25th March, 2002

Was ratified by the Parliament on September 27, 2002

Submitted to Coe on 18 December, 2006

Entered into force on May 1, 2006


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Ratification of the Additional Protocol to The Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine

concerning Biomedical Research

Protocol was signed on 21 February, 2005

Not yet ratified by the Parliament


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Laws of Georgia on Drug and Pharmaceutical Activity, on Psychiatry, HIV/AIDS,Human Organ Transplantation etc. . .

Code of Ethics of Georgian Physician

Adopted by the 1st National Congress of Georgian Physicians in 2003

Physician’s Oath

WMA Declaration of Geneva

Constitution of

Georgia

Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine and it’s Additional Protocols

Law of Georgia on Doctor’s Professional Activity

Law on Georgia on the Rights of Patient

Law of Georgia on Health Care

Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning Biomedical Research

The Draft Law on Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Impact of the Oviedo Convention and its Protocols on Georgian Legislation

Oviedo Convention

The drafting process of various laws took place before the Convention was signed and ratified.

However, Almost all conceptual statements of the Oviedo Convention are included in Laws on “Health Care”, “Rights of Patients Rights”, “Human Organ Transplantation”, draft “Law on Biomedical Research Involving Human Subject” etc.

Therefore, the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine and the Protocol on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Being were ratified by the Parliament of Georgia without making any reservation.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Impact of the Oviedo Convention and its Protocols on Georgian Legislation

Protocol on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings

The Law on Health Care (adopted in December 10, 1997) prohibits cloning human beings.

The protocol was opened for signature on January 12, 1998. However, the Georgian Law was influenced before that date by debates within the Council of Europe around the draft protocol.

So, the Georgia could be the first country which prohibited human cloning by law, although the text of the relevant article is not close enough to the language of the protocol - “Human cloning by use of the methods of genetic engineering is prohibited.” (Law on Health Care, Article 142.1).


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Impact of the Oviedo Convention and its Protocols on Georgian Legislation

Protocol concerning Transplantation of Organs and Tissues of Human Origin

Georgian Law on Human Organ Transplantation was adopted in 2000. i.e. before the protocol was opened for signature (January 24, 2002). However, the Law incorporated principles of Convention itself, which are aiming at protecting life, health and dignity of organ donors and recipients, particularly vulnerable groups and minimizing the possibility of organ trafficking.

  • Some characteristics of Georgian Law:

  • “opt-in” system for organ removal from dead donors;

  • the circle of the living donors is restricted to genetic relatives and spouse of the recipient.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Impact of the Oviedo Convention and its Protocols on Georgian Legislation

Protocol concerning Transplantation of Organs and Tissues of Human Origin

Georgian Law on Human Organ Transplantation was adopted in 2000. i.e. before the protocol was opened for signature (January 24, 2002). However, the Law incorporated principles of Convention itself, which are aiming at protecting life, health and dignity of organ donors and recipients, particularly vulnerable groups and minimizing the possibility of organ trafficking.

Later amendment was made to the Law on Human Organ Transplantation, which partly widened the circle of living donors and “donor exchange” was allowed. However, restrictions articulated in the Protocol concerning Transplantation of Organs and Tissues of Human Origin were taken into consideration


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Impact of the Oviedo Convention and its Protocols on Georgian Legislation

Protocol concerning Biomedical Research

The work on ratification of the protocol on research includes discussion and adoption of the Law on Biomedical Research on Human Beings.

The first draft prepared in 1999-2000;

The draft law has been reviewed by the expert appointed by the Council of Europe and updated according to the comments provided in 2001.

Adoption was delayed at the Parliament and the draft law was reviewed again in 2006-2007 in the light of the adoption of Additional Protocol concerning Biomedical Research.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Impact of the Oviedo Convention and its Protocols on Georgian Legislation

Protocol concerning Biomedical Research

So, the current version of the draft law is in line with the protocol and the Parliament plans to discuss it and start its adoption simultaneously with the Protocol concerning Biomedical Research.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Legislation of Georgia on Biomedical Research on Human Subjects

Law on Health Care (10.12.97)

Chapter XIX: “Biomedical Research”

Law on Drug and Pharmaceutical Activity (25.12.1996)

Chapter III: “Drug Development and Research” , Articles 7 and 8

Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (1.03.2001)

Additional Protocol concerning Biomedical Research

Draft Law on Biomedical Research involving Human Beings


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Law on

Health Care

Drug Law

Draft Law on BMR

+

+

+

Drug Trials

+

+

-

Other Research on Human Beings

+

-

Research on Personal Data

Research on Human Bio-materials

+

-


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Legislation of Georgia on Biomedical Research on Human Subjects

Shortcomings of Current Legislation:

Law on Health Care: Lacks specificity and does not cover various aspects of biomedical research. Also, it does not give clear guidance about the role and function of research ethics committees

  • Law on Drug and Pharmaceutical Activity:

  • - requires ethics committee to be created for each trial at the institution where research is planned to be carried out.

  • prohibits research on imprisoned individuals and military servicemen.

  • specifically mentions recommendations set out in WMA Declaration of Helsinki as the basis for conducting clinical trials on human beings.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Draft Law on Biomedical Research involving Human Beings

The Structure of the draft Law:

Chapter I. General Provisions

Chapter II. Principles of Research Project Planning and Implementation

Chapter III. Rights of a Research Subject

Chapter IV. Responsibilities of a Researcher

Chapter V. Research on Specific Groups and/or in

Specific Situations

Chapter VI. Epidemiological Research

Chapter VII. Ethical Evaluation of Research Protocol and

Biomedical research Ethics Committees

Chapter VIII. Prohibitions

Chapter IX-X. Transitional and Final Provisions


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Draft Law on Biomedical Research involving Human Beings

The scope:

The law concerns any type of research aiming at obtaining information and broadening knowledge in the sphere of biomedicine which serves the interests of human health protection and implies:

Physical intervention on human being;

Research on biological materials which initially were taken and stored with other purpose;

Intervention which doesn’t imply physical intervention on human being but can pose danger to mental health or psychological condition of human being;

Research on foetus and/or embryo in vivo;

The Law does not apply to research on embryos in vitro.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Draft Law on Biomedical Research involving Human Beings

The core principles the legislation is based on:

“In civilized life,

law floats in a sea of ethics.”

Earl Warren (1891-1974), American Chief Justice


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Draft Law on Biomedical Research involving Human Beings

The core principles the legislation is based on:

Primacy of the human being

Autonomy of research subjects

Information

Informed consent

Confidentiality and privacy

Scientific quality

Minimizing risks and keeping adequate risk-benefit ratio

Safety

Protection of vulnerable groups

Multidisciplinary review of ethical acceptability of research protocol and its approval by an ethics committee


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Impact of the Oviedo Convention and its Protocols on Georgian Legislation

Protocol concerning Genetic Testing for Health Purposes

The were no new developments in this sphere since the protocol was opened for signatures.

  • However, the Laws on “the Rights of Patients” and “Health Care” include specific provision on Genetics, which are coherent to the principles established by the Convention. These provisions concern:

  • non-discrimination;

  • general conditions to perform gene therapy;

  • general conditions to perform genetic testing;

  • restrictions for the interventions seeking to modify the human genome;

  • prohibition of sex selection.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Impact of the Oviedo Convention and its Protocols on Practices in Georgia

  • National Council of Bioethics regularly refers to the Oviedo Convention and its Protocols in the process of making decisions and recommendations on specific issues ( human organ transplantation, stem cells, end of life, palliative care and euthanasia, psychiatry etc.)

  • Georgian Government based on the Convention and its Anti-cloning Protocol made its decision during international debates on UN level concerning prohibition of human cloning.

  • The Oviedo Convention is used in the process of education/training of health care professionals and lawyers.

  • Association of Transplantologists of Georgia considers the Convention and additional Protocol concerning Transplantation of Organs and Tissues of Human Origin in decision-making process.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Impact of the Oviedo Convention and its Protocols on Practices in Georgia

  • Additional Protocol concerning Biomedical Research as well as Oviedo Convention itself are intensively used in the process of ethical review of research projects, which involve human beings. This is done by:

    • National Council on Bioethics[1], when it reviews multicentre and/or international and/or high risk research projects;

    • Local research ethics committees.

  • Provisions of the Convention have been reflected in the Code of Ethics of Georgian Physicians, which has been developed and endorsed in 2003.

    [1] Usually National Council on Bioethics does not review specific research projects, unless specifically requested; particularly, when projects are multicenter/international or there is comparatively high risk associated with the research project.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Impact of the Oviedo Convention and its Protocols on Practices in Georgia

  • However, the Oviedo Convention and its additional Protocols are not widely known, referred and/or followed by relevant professionals – health care providers, lawyers, policy makers. More efforts are needed for their popularization. Such efforts should include development and implementation of specific modules to teach the above instruments of the Council Europe on undergraduate as well as postgraduate level for health care professionals and lawyers.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

International Bioethics Conference

Oviedo Convention in Central and Eastern European Countries

Impact of Oviedo Convention and its Protocols on Legislation and Practices in Georgia

Council of Europe

in collaboration with

Slovak Medical Association

Institute of Medical Ethics and Bioethics n. f.

-------

September 24-25, 2009

Bratislava,

Slovak Republic

Givi Javashvili,

Chairman, National Council on Bioethics

National Expert to the Steering Committee on Bioethics


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Draft Law on Biomedical Research involving Human Beings

Absence of Alternatives

A research shall be carried out on a person in case if there is no alternative method of research with analogous scientific value the subjects of which are not human beings.

Risks and Benefits

Risk and discomfort related to participation in research shall not exceed benefit of a research. Benefit can concern a research subject as well as other persons.

Concept of Minimal Risk

Risk, which doesn’t exceed risks associated with diagnostic and therapeutic intervention of daily practice and when it is expected that negative impact of the intervention is insignificant and temporary.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Draft Law on Biomedical Research involving Human Beings

Quality of research

Any research shall be scientifically valid, shall meet recognized requirements for scientific research and be carried out under supervision of a relevantly qualified researcher.

Placebo

Use of placebo in a research is permitted when there is no approbated method with relevant efficiency or when withholding such an approved method or its withdrawal doesn’t result in unacceptable risk or discomfort.

Very detailed list of items to be included in the research protocol


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Draft Law on Biomedical Research involving Human Beings

Research outside the territory of Georgia

If a researcher or a sponsor, who is on the territory of Georgia plans to carry out a research outside the country, he/she shall ensure development of a research protocol and its implementation in a way that the guarantee for protection of a research subject shall not be weaker than guarantees determined by the present law and other relevant Georgian legislation.

Financial issues

No financial or any type of compensation with the aim of obtaining informed consent.

Reimbursement of expenses or financial damages related to participation in research.

Possibility of free of charge medical services in those medical institutions where a research is carried out for which consent of ethics committee is necessary.


International bioethics conference oviedo convention in central and eastern european countries

Draft Law on Biomedical Research involving Human Beings

Compensation for damage

When participation in research causes damage to research subject or his/her death compensation is issued by a researcher or a research sponsor;

A researcher can insure a research subject against possible damage or death incurred from a research. In this case compensation is issued by an insurance company.

Contract

Contract should reflect (a) responsibilities of a researcher, (b) responsibilities of a research subject, (c) entity issuing compensation in case of damage, (d) entity responsible for reimbursement of expenses related to participation in research.


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