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Infective & Atrophic Rhinitis. Dr. Vishal Sharma. Acute Infective Rhinitis. SPECIFIC NON-SPECIFIC Acute diphtheritic Common cold Acute syphilitic Influenza Erysipelas Exanthematous rhinitis. Common cold (coryza).

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Infective & Atrophic Rhinitis

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Infective atrophic rhinitis

Infective & Atrophic Rhinitis

Dr. Vishal Sharma

Acute infective rhinitis

Acute Infective Rhinitis


Acute diphtheritic Common cold

Acute syphilitic Influenza


Exanthematous rhinitis

Common cold coryza

Common cold (coryza)

  • Highly contagious, viral infectious disease of upper respiratory system. Caused by rhino-virus, coronavirus, human parainfluenza virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus.


  • Aerosol generated by coughing, sneezing

  • Contact with saliva or nasal secretions

Infective atrophic rhinitis

  • Symptoms: sore throat, runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, cough; pink eye, muscle aches, fatigue, malaise, headaches, muscle weakness, loss of appetite. Symptoms resolve after 1-2 week.

  • Opportunistic super infections:acute bronchitis, croup, pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, sore throat.

Infective atrophic rhinitis


  • Bed rest. Avoid exposure to cold weather.

  • Plenty of fluids. Avoid cola & alcoholic drinks.

  • Avoid tea & coffee (they cause dehydration)

  • Antihistamines + nasal decongestants

  • Non-aspirin analgesics

  • Antibiotics for secondary infection

  • Doubtful role: Vitamin C, Zinc, chicken soup, ginger, garlic, herbal tea, steam inhalation.

Chronic infective rhinitis

Chronic Infective Rhinitis


TubercularChronic simple

Chronic diphtheritic Chronic hypertrophic

Chronic syphiliticAtrophic rhinitis

LeprosyRhinitis sicca

RhinoscleromaRhinitis caseosa


Atrophic rhinitis

Atrophic Rhinitis



Dr. Spencer Watson, 1875:

  • Used the term “Ozaena”

    Dr. Bernhard Fraenkel, 1876:

  • Described triad of:

    1. Fetor

    2. Crusting

    3. Atrophy of nasal structures



  • Chronic inflammation of nose with progressive atrophy of nasal mucosa & turbinate bones

  • Formation of scanty viscid secretion & green crusts which emit a foul odour (ozaena)

  • Removal of crusts reveals roomy nasal cavity

    Types: 1. Primary 2. Secondary

Primary atrophic rhinitis

Primary Atrophic Rhinitis


 Developmental

 Hereditary

 Endocrine

 Racial

 Nutritional deficiency

 Infection

 Autoimmune Autonomic Imbalance

 Surfactant deficiency in nasal secretion


Infective atrophic rhinitis


Congenitally spacious nasal cavity

Poor pneumatization of maxillary antrum

Hereditary:30% cases autosomal inheritence

67% = Dominant, 33% = Recessive

Endocrine:Seen during puberty, menopause,

menstruation. Symptoms aggravated

due to oestrogen deficiency.

Infective atrophic rhinitis

Racial: More in American Negroes & Latin

races (yellow race)

Nutritional deficiency:Iron deficiency,

Vitamin A deficiency, Vitamin D deficiency

Infection:Klebsiella ozaenae(Perez & Abel

bacillus), Coccobacillus foetides ozaena,

Bacillus mucosus, Diphtheroids,

Haemophilus influenzae

Infective atrophic rhinitis

Autoimmune: viral infection / malnutrition / immune deficiency  trigger destructive autoimmune process on nasal mucosa

Autonomic Imbalance: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome (R.S.D.S.) causes vasodilatation & hyperaemic decalcification of turbinates followed by vasoconstriction

Surfactant deficiency in nasal secretion: ciliary dysfunction + stasis of nasal secretions

Secondary atrophic rhinitis

Secondary Atrophic Rhinitis

  • Long-standing purulent sinusitis

  • Iatrogenic: Radical turbinectomy,

    maxillectomy, post-radiotherapy

  • Tuberculosis, Syphilis, Leprosy

  • Rhinoscleroma

  • Deviated nasal septum (atrophy in wider nasal




  • Nasal obstruction

  • Greenish-yellow nasal discharge

  • Offensive smell (ozaena) due to anaerobic infection, experienced by relatives

  • Merciful anosmia presentin the patient

  • Epistaxis on crust removal



  • Roomy nasal cavity with atrophy of mucosa & turbinates

  • Greenish-yellow nasal discharge with crust formation (begins posteriorly)

  • Foul smell (foetor)

  • Nasal septum perforation

  • Nasal myiasis

Nasal crusting

Nasal crusting

Nasal crusting1

Nasal crusting

Normal turbinates meati

Normal Turbinates & Meati

Turbinate atrophy roomy nasal cavity

Turbinate atrophy & roomy nasal cavity

Infective atrophic rhinitis

D/D for ozaenaD/D for dry nose

1. Atrophic rhinitis1. Atrophic rhinitis

2. Purulent sinusitis2. Rhinitis sicca

3. Nasal foreign body3. Radiotherapy

4. Rhinitis caseosa4. Sjogren’s syndrome

5. Malignancy

Infective atrophic rhinitis

Causes of Anosmia

1. Loss of olfactory neural elements

2. Thick secretion & crusts over olfactory area

3. Degeneration of secretory glands  scanty mucous for dissolving odoriferous materials

Causes of nasal obstruction

1. Blunting of sensory nerve endings

2. Crust formation

3. Lack of eddy current formation in roomy cavity

Infective atrophic rhinitis


 Accumulation of lymphocytes & plasma cells.

 Squamous metaplasia from ciliated columnar

 Ciliary destruction & decrease in nasal glands

 Bone resorption

Type I: Endarteritis & periarteritis of terminal

arterioles. Benefit from estrogen therapy

Type II:Dilated capillaries worsened by estrogen

Biopsy findings

Biopsy Findings


Atrophic rhinitis

Specific investigations

Specific Investigations

Saccharine test:ed nasal muco-ciliary

clearance time

Serum iron & protein levels: malnutrition

Culture & sensitivity of nasal discharge

Diagnostic Nasal Endoscopy

X-ray P.N.S.: maxillary sinusitis

C t scan p n s

C.T. scan P.N.S.

  • Mucoperiosteal thickening

  • Resorption of ethmoid bulla & uncinate process

  • Hypoplasia of maxillary sinuses

  • Roomy nasal cavities

  • Erosion & bowing of lateral nasal wall

  • Atrophy of turbinates

Specific investigations1

Specific Investigations

Chest X-ray: T.B., bronchiectasis, lung abscess

Serology for syphilis: V.D.R.L., T.P.H.A., T.P.I.

Sputum for AFB, Mantoux test: T.B.

Nasal smear study: Leprosy

Complement fixation test & biopsy: Rhinoscleroma

Medical treatment

Medical Treatment

Infective atrophic rhinitis

Douching  alkaline nasal douche

Oestradiolnasal spray (1%)

Glucose(25%) in glycerin nasal drops


Placentalextract injection



Kemicetinesolution: Estrogen, Vit. D, Chloramphenicol

Mandl’s nasal paint(Potassium Iodide & oestradiol)

PotassiumIodide orally

Alkaline nasal douche

Alkaline Nasal Douche

Sodium bicarbonate (28.4g)  loosens nasal crusts

Sodium biborate (28.4g)  Antiseptic

Sodium chloride (56.7g)  makes solution isotonic

Mixed in 280 ml of warm water to make the solution.

20 ml plastic syringe with 6” long rubber tubing taken.

Syringe nasal cavity while pt bends forward & keeps

saying K, K, K … to close nasopharyngeal isthmus.

Done B.D. till all crusts disappear.

Action of placental extract

Action of Placental extract

  • Progesterone leads to hyperplasia of nasal mucosa & glandular secretion

  • Oestrogen leads to vasodilatation

  • Biogenic stimulator of metabolic & regenerative process

  • Intra-placental serum boosts up immunity

  • Mechanical narrowing of nasal passage

Surgical treatment

Surgical Treatment

Infective atrophic rhinitis

Young’s operation: Only 1 nostril closed

completely by raising 2 circumferential

flaps (inner mucosal & outer cutaneous) in nasal

vestibule & suturing them in midline.

Modified Young’s operationdone by similar

way but keeping a 3 mm opening on both sides.

Recannalisation done after 12-18 month with a

tri-radiate (Mercedes Benz) incision.

Pre operative


Mucosal flaps sutured

Mucosal flaps sutured

Cutaneous flap sutured

Cutaneous flap sutured

Post operative healed flaps

Post-operative healed flaps

Modified young s operation

Modified Young’s operation

Tri radiate incision

Tri-radiate incision

Modified young s el kholy

Modified Young’s (El Kholy)

Advantages of modified young

Advantages of Modified Young

  • Progress of disease can be monitored with 2.7 mm nasal endoscope

  • Glucose in glycerine drops can be instilled

  • Both nostrils can be operated at one sitting

  • Nasal breathing preserved

  • No complaints of de-nasal voice

  • Better cosmetic result

Infective atrophic rhinitis

Lautenslager’s operation: Fracture & medial

displacement of lateral nasal wall

Wilson’s operation:submucosal injection

of Teflon paste

Antral mucosal transplantation into nasal cavity

through intranasal antrostomy: Raghav Sharan

Vestibuloplasty:raising a lateral shelf from

nasal vestibular flap to cover turbinates

Infective atrophic rhinitis

Sympathectomy: Stellate ganglion block /

cervical chain block

Sublabial implantation:bone, cartilage, fat,

placental bits, hydroxyapatite + fibrin paste,

Plastipore, acrylic resin, silastic

Parotid duct implantation into maxillary sinus:

Wittmack’s operation

Pre operative1


Lautenslager s operation

Lautenslager’s operation

Submucosal teflon paste

Submucosal Teflon paste

Sublabial implants

Sublabial Implants

Sublabial implants1

Sublabial Implants



Antral mucosa transplant

Antral mucosa transplant

Types of surgery

Types of surgery

  • Nasal closure: Young  Modified Young

  • Volume reduction: Lautenslager  Wilson

     Sublabial implants  Vestibuloplasty

  • Denervation: Cervical sympathectomy

     Stellate ganglion block

     Sphenopalatine ganglion block

  • Salivary irrigation:Parotid duct implantation

Aim of surgery

Aim of Surgery

Decrease trauma of air turbulence:

 Nasal closure

 Volume reduction

Increase nasal secretions:

 Parotid duct implantation into maxillary sinus

Increase vascularity of nasal mucosa:

 Denervation procedures

 Nasal implantation of maxillary sinus mucosa

Surgical treatment1

Surgical Treatment

  • Modified YoungYoung

  • LautenslagerLady

  • WilsonWas

  • VestibuloplastyVery

  • Sublabial implantationSweet

  • Antral mucosal transplantationAnd

  • Parotid duct implantationPretty

Nasal obturator

Nasal Obturator

Nasal obturator1

Nasal Obturator


  • Reversible & easily removed

  • Allows for irrigations & serial clinical exams

  • Avoids surgical morbidity


  • Uncomfortable

  • Sore throat due to obligate mouth breathing

Rhinitis sicca

Rhinitis Sicca

  • Mild form of atrophic rhinitis

  • Seen in hot, dry, dusty places (bakers, goldsmiths); alcoholics & anaemics

  • Crusting present anteriorly only

  • Bone atrophy & foetor are absent

  • Tx: Nasal douching + change of surrounding

Rhinitis caseosa

Rhinitis Caseosa

  • Synonym:Nasal cholesteatoma

  • Chronic inflammation with deposition of foul smelling cheesy material in nasal cavity.

  • Nasal obstruction  stasis of secretions & exfoliated cells  putrefaction  caseation

  • Treatment: 1. Removal of cheesy debris

    2. Correction of nasal obstruction

Thank you

Thank You

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