Energy systems
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Energy Systems. Lesson Aims Analyse & understand how ATP works? Understand how ATP is resynthesized for muscular contractions. Energy & ATP. All body systems require energy to perform work. Energy = Capacity of the body to perform work. (Calories (ckal) or Joules)

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Energy Systems

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Energy systems

Energy Systems

Lesson Aims

Analyse & understand how ATP works?

Understand how ATP is resynthesized for muscular contractions.


Energy atp

Energy & ATP

  • All body systems require energy to perform work.

  • Energy = Capacity of the body to perform work.

    (Calories (ckal) or Joules)

    1Calorie = 4.184 joules

  • It is important to have knowledge of energy as it allows the coach and performer to maximise performance.


Energy atp1

Energy & ATP

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - The basic source of energy for muscle contraction.

ATP is a molecule composed of Adenosine attached to 3 phosphate.

  • The 3 phosphate bonds store high energy

  • When the outermost bond is broken

  • the energy is then released for muscular

  • contractions.

  • This reaction takes place in the myofibril


Energy atp2

Energy & ATP

  • When a phosphate is broken loose from the ATP molecule (forming ADP: adenine diphosphate) energy (ATPase enzyme) is released.

  • There is only enough ATP stored in the muscles for 1 explosive muscle contraction.

  • As ATP is not stored in large amounts in skeletal muscle, it has to be replenished or resynthesized for contractions to continue


Energy atp3

Energy & ATP

ATP resynthesis

  • ATP replenishment is a reversible chain reaction.

  • ADP (Adenosine diphosphate) + a Pi (phosphate) molecule is recombined to resynthesize ATP.

  • There are other ways in which energy stores are replenished, these are called energy pathways.


Energy pathways

ENERGY PATHWAYS?

PHOSPHOCREATINE (PCr) SPLITTING

  • Phosphocreatine is stored in the muscle

    tissue (sarcoplasm) and is broken down by

    enzyme creatine kinase into creatine.

  • Creatine kinase is stimulated by the  in ‘free’

    phosphates (Pi) resulting from the breakdown

    of ATP into ADP + Pi + energy

  • The combined amounts of muscle ATP and

  • phosphocreatine are can provide maximal

  • muscle power for 8 to 10 seconds

    Thus, the energy from the phosphagen system is used for maximal short bursts of power.

    For example – 100m sprint


Energy pathways1

ENERGY PATHWAYS?

Anaerobic Glycolysis

  • Carbohydrates, sugar or starch are stored in the muscles & liver as glycogen.

  • These are converted to a compound ‘glucose-6-phospate’ (pyruvic acid) for the resynthesis of ATP.

  • No O2 is required, hence Anaerobic. However, it produces a large accumulation of lacticacid.

  • Pathway is used in highintensity activities with a duration of 1-3 minutes.

    For example - 400/800m

    - 100m freestyle (swimming)


Energy pathways2

ENERGY PATHWAYS?

Aerobic Metabolism

  • ATP is resynthesized by chemical

  • reactions from many sources.

  • Used when sustained energy is

  • required.

  • H2O & CO2 are by product. These

  • are easily dispersed through

  • sweating and respiration.


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