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EMC measurements of components. Summary. EMC problem examples EM disturbance sources EMC certification ? EMC measurement for electronic systems EMC measurement for integrated circuits. August 14. EMC problem examples. A typical electromagnetic environment…. August 14.

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Emc measurements of components

EMC measurements of components


Emc measurements of components

Summary

EMC problem examples

EM disturbance sources

EMC certification ?

EMC measurement for electronic systems

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC problem examples

A typical electromagnetic environment…

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC problem examples

Electromagnetic interference issues in medical devices

  • Medical device EMI problems reported by FDA between 1979 and 1993

http://www.emcs.org/acstrial/newsletters/fall04/63_67.pdf

  • 405 suspected EMI problems reported by FDA between 1994 and 2005, with 6 deaths, 170 injuries and 167 malfunctions. 72 % of cases concern implantable devices.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC problem examples

Electromagnetic interference issues in military systems

29th July 1967 : accident of the American aircraft carrier USS Forrestal. The accidental launching of a rocket blew gas tank and weapon stocks, killing 135 persons and causing damages which needed 7 month reparations. Investigations showed that a radar induced on plane wiring a sufficient parasitic voltage to trigger the launching of the rocket.

H.M.S. Sheffield catastrophe: “During the Falklands War, the British Ship H.M.S Sheffield sank after being hit by an Exocet missile. Despite the Sheffield having the most sophisticated antimissile defense system available, the system created EMI to radiocommunications to and among the contingent of Harrier jets assigned to the ship. While the Harriers took off, the missile defense was disengaged to allow communications with the jets and provided a window of opportunity for the Exocet missile.”

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC problem examples

Electromagnetic interference issues in automotive

Interference Technology – October 2011

Mercedez-Benz case: “During the early years of ABS, Mercedez-Benz automobiles equipped with ABS had severe braking problems along a certain stretch of the German autobahn. The brakes were affected by a near-by-near radio transmitter as drivers applied them on the curved section of highway. The near-term solution was to a erect a mesh screen along the roadway to attenuate the EMI. This enabled the brakes to function properly when drivers applied them…. Eventually, automobile ABS was qualified by EMI testing prior to procurement.”

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC problem examples

Electromagnetic interference issues in aviation

« Disturbances of flight instruments causing trajectory deviations appear when one or several passengers switch on electronic devices. » (Air et Cosmos, April 1993)

NASA publication 1374 (1986 – 1995)

FAA Aviation Safety Reporting System has reported 12 cases of interference in aircraft due to personal electronic devices since 2002.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC problem examples

Electromagnetic interference issues in space aircraft

Vacuum cleaner incident: “During a Spacelab mission in 1985, the crew decided to use the middeck vacuum cleaner instead of the one in the lab. Switching the middeck vacuum on caused the voltage to drop and the Remote Acquisition Unit to shut off. In preflight EMI tests, the vacuum cleaner had not been tested and should not have been used in the lab. This case shows how careful and attentive one must when dealing with EMC.” [Nasa Publication 1374]

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EM disturbance sources

Various disturbance sources that can affect electronic system operation

Human activity

Natural sources

Intentional emission

Non intentional emission

Electrostatic discharge

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EM disturbance sources

Interferences from telecommunication systems

Radio-navigation

  • Narrowband emission, modulated signals.

  • Regulation and planification of radioelectric spectrum controlled by ITU-R at international level, and by « Agence Nationale des Fréquences » (ANFR) at French level.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EM disturbance sources

Interferences from electronic systems

  • Parasitic noise generated by the activity (switching) of any electrical or electronic devices

  • The noise is usually impulse type  broadband noise.

  • Example : Radiated emission from a 16 bit microcontroller (quartz freq = 8 MHz)

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EM disturbance sources

The EM environment according to ITU-R 372-8

  • Ambient field levels defined from EM survey in 70’s.

  • Recent surveys show a 20 – 40 dB increase in semi-enclosed environment.

  • Example: Survey of the average level of electric field in Canada during the 90’s in urban and suburban environment: between 1 and 20 V/m.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EM disturbance sources

The EM environment

  • Site Agence Nationale des Fréquences (www.anfr.fr) – outil Cartoradio.

Distance antenne – point de mesure = 60m

Etot = 4.35 V/m

Champ E

August 14


Emc measurements of components

Summary

  • EM disturbances can induce major failures in electronic systems.

  • The parasitic emission and susceptibility to EM disturbances must be tested to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of an electronic systems within a nominal environment.

  • But it is a tedious task because:

    • Diversity in terms of electronic devices

    • Numerous types of disturbances (LF, HF, pulsed, modulated), numerous EM environment

    • Various EM coupling possibilities (conducted, radiated, near-field…)

How defining generic tests to guarantee EMC for any electronic systems in any EM environment, with an industrial realism ?

August 14


Emc measurements of components

The EMC certification

CE mark

EMC European Directive

  • The European directive 89/336/EEC (1996) and then 2004/108/EC (2004) requires that all « electrical apparatus » placed on the European market :

    • Do not produce electromagnetic interferences able to disturb radio or telecom equipments , and the normal operation of all equipments

    • Have a sufficient immunity level to electromagnetic interferences to prevent any degradation of the normal operation.

  • All manufacturers of « electrical apparatus » must certify that the directive is supposed respected by delivering a declaration of conformity and placing a CE mark on the product.

  • Using harmonized standards adapted to the product to verify the supposition of conformity is recommended

August 14


Emc measurements of components

The EMC certification

R&TTE European Directive

  • The European directive 99/5/EC (1999) Radio & Telecommunications Terminal Equipment which is applied to all telecom and radio equipments emitting on the band 9 KHz – 3000 GHz replace the EMC directive. .

  • R&TTE requires that telecom and radio equipments placed on the European market: :

    • Comply to safety constraints given by the Low Voltage directive (73/23/EEC) (e.g. the limit of EM exposure for persons) and the EMC constraints given by the EMC directive 2004/108/EC.

    • Radio equipments use spectral resources dedicated for terrestrial and spatial communications without generating any interferences.

  • R&TTE mark:

Warning signal for class 2 equipments (special recommandations)

Required for all equipments under the R&TTE directive

August 14


Emc measurements of components

The EMC certification

EMC normative bodies: the importance of EMC standards !

International

European

International Electrotechnical Commission(IEC)

EuropeanCommitee for ElectrotechnicalStandardization(CENELEC)

EuropeanTelecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI)

Comité International Spécial des Perturbations Radioélectriques(CISPR)

TC77

Harmonized standards

EN 50XXX

EN 55XXX

EN 6XXXX

CISPR-XX

IEC 61000-X

EN 300XX

August 14


Emc measurements of components

The EMC certification

Commercial harmonized standard (non exhaustive list !)

August 14


Emc measurements of components

The EMC certification

Commercial harmonized standard (non exhaustive list !)

  • Automotive, military, aerospace and railway industries have developed their own EMC standards.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

The EMC certification

Case study 1

  • You want to place on the European market a ventilator for domestic installation. It is supplied by mains (220 V).

  • Which EMC standard(s) should you follow ? What tests should you conduct for the EMC certification ?

August 14


Emc measurements of components

The EMC certification

Case study 1

  • Application of EN55014-1 and 2: “Electromagnetic compatibility – Requirements for household appliances, electric tools and similar apparatus” – Part 1 = Emission, Part 2 = Immunity :

    • Any domestic electric/electronic equipments, toys, electric tool supplied under 250 V (monophase) (motors, heat elements, thermostats …)

    • Except light modules (EN55015), radio receivers (EN55025), gaming machine (EN55022).

21

August 14


Emc measurements of components

The EMC certification

Case study 2

  • Suggested emission tests:

  • Suggested immunity tests:

22

August 14


Emc measurements of components

The EMC certification

Case study 2

  • You want to place on the European market a radio emitter/receiver for remote control application in residential environment. The radio emitter use the ISM band around 434 MHz. Its maximum radiated power is limited to 500 mW. The emitter/receiver is an handheld device.

  • Which EMC standard(s) should you follow ? What tests should you conduct for the EMC certification ?

August 14


Emc measurements of components

The EMC certification

Case study 2

  • The harmonized standard EN 300220: “Electromagnetic compatibility and radio spectrum matters (ERM); Short Range devices (SRD); Radio equipment to be used in the 25 MHz to 1000 MHz frequency range with power levels ranging up to 500 mW” is adapted to short range devices :

    • either with a Radio Frequency (RF) output connection and/or with an integral antenna;

    • for alarms, identification, telecommand, telemetry, etc., applications;

    • with or without speech.

    • It covers fixed stations, mobile stations and portable stations, all types of modulation.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

The EMC certification

Case study 2

  • List of suggested tests:

  • Some ESD tests should be also done …

August 14


Emc measurements of components

The EMC certification

Case study 3

  • You are a semiconductor manufacturers and you want to sell your integrated circuits in the European market. Your ICs are dedicated to automotive applications.

  • Which EMC standard(s) should you follow ? What tests should you conduct for the EMC certification ?

August 14


Emc measurements of components

The EMC certification

Case study 3

  • If your integrated circuits can not operate by themselves, you don’t need EMC certification.

  • However, your customers will certainly push you to guarantee the low emission and susceptibility of your devices, require measurements, models, support….

  • Examples of standards providing EMC measurement for ICs:

    • IEC 61967: Integrated Circuits, Measurement of Electromagnetic Emissions, 150 kHz to 1 GHz

    • IEC 62132: Integrated circuits - Measurement of electromagnetic immunity, 150 kHz to 1 GHz

    • ISO11452: Road vehicles - Electrical disturbances by narrowband electromagnetic energy - Component test methods

    • ISO 7637 or IEC61000-4-2/4/5 for ESD, pulse, surge testing.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Why EMC standard measurement methods

  • Check EMC compliance of ICs, equipments and systems

  • Comparison of EMC performances between different products, different technologies, designs, PCB routings

  • Improve interaction between customers and providers (same protocols, same set-up)

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Control - Acquisition

Radiated or conducted coupling

Acquisition system

50Ω adapted path

Coupling device

  • Spectrum analyzer

  • EMI receiver

  • Oscilloscope

  • Coupling network

  • Antennas

  • Wave guide

  • Current clamp…

Emission requirements verified ?

Emission measurements – General measurement set-up

Equipment / Device under test

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Emission measurements – Emission spectrum

Amplitude (dBµV)

Frequency (MHz)

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Emblematic EMC equipment – Spectrum Analyzer (EMI receiver)

Frequency adjustment : Start, stop , center

Y= power (dBm, dBµV)

RBW – frequency resolution, noise floor reduction

50 Ohm input

X= frequency

VBW – smooth display

  • Emission measurement requires high sensitivity and resolution

  • Emission measurement standards often recommend spectrum analyzer adjustment

Amplitude adjustment : Level reference, dynamic.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Emblematic EMC equipment – Spectrum Analyzer (EMI receiver)

  • Principle: based on super heterodyne receiver

Input signal

Output signal

IN

Mixer

OUT

IF filter

f

Frf

Local oscillator

LO

f

Fif

Frf+Flo

f

Flo

OUT

ωif

IF filter

A

Detected power:

RBW

P = ½.A²+No.RBW

No

f

Fif

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Gain IF

Emblematic EMC equipment – Spectrum Analyzer (EMI receiver)

  • Building blocks and adjustable elements:

Detector

Attenuation

Input signal

RBW

Envelope detector

VBW

Mixers

IF filter

Analog filter

Attenuator

DC blocking

Gain log

Video filter

Low pass filter

Local oscillator

Display

Frequency sweep

Reference oscillator

Fstart / Fstop

Fcenter / Span

Point number

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Emblematic EMC equipment – Spectrum Analyzer (EMI receiver)

  • Example: effect of RBW and VBW.

  • Measurement of 100 MHz sinus.

Amplitude = 90 dBµV

Amplitude = 20 dBµV

Sweep time :

VBW = 30 KHz  100 ms

VBW = 1 KHz  980 ms

Sweep time :

RBW = 100 KHz  2.5 ms

RBW = 10 KHz  100 ms

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Emblematic EMC equipment – Spectrum Analyzer (EMI receiver)

  • Example: Influence of detector type (peak vs. quasi-peak vs. average).

  • Measurement of radiated emission of a microcontroller.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Radiated emission in (semi-)Anechoic chamber (30 MHz – 1 GHz)

EN55022

(Siepel)

Absorbents

Faraday cage (with absorbents: semi-anechoic chamber)

Wide band (calibrated) antenna

Device under test

1 m

1 m

EMI receiver or spectrum analyzer)

R = 3 ou 10 m

1 m

Power supply, DUT control

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Radiated emission in (semi-)Anechoic chamber (30 MHz – 1 GHz)

If far field and free space conditions ensured:

Optional pre-amplifier

Low loss 50 Ω cable

EMI receiver

Rs =50 Ω

E field

Vemi

Measured power Pemi

Bilog antenna

(or log-periodic, biconical, dipole…)

AF = Antenna factor (from calibration)

The E field varies in 1/r with the distance r (the radiated power in 1/r²)  possible extrapolation of field intensity.

37

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Example of emission measurements

Conducted emission on power supply (FCC certification) – Peak detector

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Example of emission measurements

Radiated emission at 3 meters (FCC certification) – Peak detector

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Does EMC certification cancel the interference risks?

Let’s consider a radio receiver (such as a mobile phone). We suppose that it operates at 900 MHz, its antenna has an antenna factor of 29 dB/m, and its receiving floor is -90 dBm. It is placed at 1 m of a “noisy” electronic equipment with a CE Mark.

Could you have a risk of interferences ?

40

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Failure detection

Injected level Extraction

Disturbance generation

Radiated or conducted coupling

50Ω adapted path

Coupling device

  • Coupling network

  • Antennas

  • Wave guide

  • Clamp…

  • Harmonic signal

  • Transients

  • Burst

Immunity requirements verified ?

Immunity measurements – General measurement set-up

Equipment / Device under test

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Start

End

Immunity measurements – General test procedure for harmonic disturbance

F = Fmin

P = Pmin

Increase P

Detection mask

Without EMI

Increase F

Wait dwell time

Failure or P = Pmax ?

Save F and P

F = Fmax ?

With EMI

Failure

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Radiated immunity in (semi-)Anechoic chamber (30 MHz – 1 GHz)

Typical max. RI level:

Commercial product: 3 – 10 V/m

Automotive (ISO-11452-2): 25 – 200 V/m

Military (MIL-STD461E): 20 – 200 V/m

Aeronautics (DO160-D): 8 – 800 V/m

(Siepel)

Field monitoring

Absorbents

Signal synthesizer

Wide band (calibrated) antenna

Device under test

Faraday cage (with absorbents: semi-anechoic chamber)

1 m

1 m

R = 3 ou 10 m

Power amplifier ( > 100 W)

1 m

Power supply, DUT control

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

DUT

Immunity measurements – Bulk current injection (BCI)

Signal synthesizer

RF disturbance

Induced current measurement

Power amplifier

Induced RF current

Directional coupler

Failure ?

LoadLISN

Bus, cable

Interface circuit

Microcontroler

Measurement clamp

Injection clamp

Faraday cage

  • Usually, the max. current is between 50 mA and 300 mA.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for electronic systems

Immunity measurements – Pulse, ESD, bursts, surge…

  • Pulse waveforms and severity levels defined by standards such as IEC61000-4-x or ISO7637

Ideal Fast transient / burst (IEC61000-4-4) (level 2)

Ideal ESD waveform at 4 KV (IEC61000-4-2) (level 2)

Ipeak = 15 A

Vpeak = 1 KV (on 50 Ω)

Td= 50 ns

Tr = 5 ns

Repetition rate = 5 – 100 KHz

I30 = 8 A

Vpeak = 1 KV (on 50 Ω)

I60 = 4 A

Tr = 0.8 ns

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

Why taking into account EMC for ICs ?

K. Armstrong, Advanced PCB design and layout for EMC

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

Why testing EMC for ICs ?

  • Integrated circuits are often the main cause of disturbances in electronic equipment.

  • In recent years, there has been a strong demand for simple, reliable and standardized measurement methods focusing only on integrated circuits that electronic system designers could use to:

  • Obtain quantitative measure of emission/immunity from ICs establishing a uniform testing environment

  • Qualify the low emission and high immunity performance of circuit.

  • Optimize circuit placement, routing, filtering and decoupling components

  • Evaluate the impact of IC redesign, technology improvement or package modification.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

Why testing EMC for ICs ?

  • Based on pre existing standards, such as:

  • CISPR 25 – Radio disturbance characteristics for the protection of receivers used on board vehicles, boats and on devices – Limits and methods of measurements

  • IEC 61000-4 – Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) – Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques

  • ISO 11452 part 1 to 7, Road vehicles – Electrical disturbances by narrow band radiated electromagnetic energy – Component test methods

  • Measurement methods for EMC of Ics proposed by IEC:

  • IEC 61967:Integrated circuits -Measurement of electromagnetic emissions, 150 kHz to 1 GHz.

  • IEC 62132: Integrated circuits - Measurement of electromagnetic immunity, 150 kHz to 1 GHz.

  • IEC 62215: Integrated circuits – Measurement of impulse immunity

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

Conducted method

Radiated method

TEM Cell improvemnt

Investigation method

International standards for IC emission measurement methods

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

Icore(t)

VE/S(t)

Iosc(t)

Vdriver(t)

IC Conducted emission

VddCore

Integrated circuit

Digital Core

Vdd osc

I/O

Load

Oscillator

Driver

PCB line

Load

  • Two noise sources: internalactivity (power supply noise) and I/O switching (SimultaneousSwitching Noise, I/O line excitation)

  • Characterization of transientcurrent and voltage induced by ICs.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

RF current

49 Ω

Spectrum analyzer

1 Ω

IC Conducted emission - IEC 61967-4 –1 ohm / 150 ohms method

  • Conducted emission is produced by RF current induced by IC activity.

  • The current induced voltage bounces along power distribution network and radiated emission.

Vdd

PCB

IC

Decoupling

« Local » ground

IRF

« Global » ground

The  « 1 ohm » method aims at measuring the RF current flowing from circuit Vss pin(s) to the ground reference.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

150 Ω matching network

RF current

6.8 nF

120 Ω

Spectrum analyzer

51 Ω

VRF

VA

RF current

IC Conducted emission - IEC 61967-4 –1 ohm / 150 ohms method

  • I/O switching is a major contributor to conducted emission.

  • They induced voltage fluctuation along power supply and I/O lines.

Vdd

I/O buffer

Decoupling

External load

PCB

The « 150 ohms » method aims at measuring the RF voltage induced at one or several IC output.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

IC current extraction from 1 Ω probe measurement

  • dsPIC33F: measurement in time domain and frequency of the voltage across the 1 Ω probe  proportional to the IC current.

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

50 ohm

Spectrum analyzer

TEM cell

(SAE J1752/3)

Pre-ampli 20-30 dB

Emission spectrum

IC Radiated emission - IEC 61967-2 – TEM cell

IC under test

Test board

Relation between the voltage measured by the spectrum analyzer and the radiated emission from the circuit

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

TEM cell – EM field inside the waveguide

y

Tapered transition

Tapered transition

y

Aperture for DUT

W

E

Port1

Port2

50 Ω

50 Ω

T

septum

H

z

O

x

Wsept

  • Field repartition:

W = 15 cm, T = 9 cm, Wsept = 10 cm, V = 1 V, y = 8 cm

  • TEM propagation mode up to 1 GHz

  • |E/H| = 377 Ω

R.J. Spiegel, and al.,“A Method for Calculating Electric and Magnetic Fields in TEM Cells at ELF”, IEEE Trans. on EMC, Nov. 1987

Quasi homogeneous field


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

TEM cell – Field coupling with a DUT

  • Example: coupling with a 50Ω microstrip line

  • Dimensions of the microstrip: W = 2.5 mm, L = 75 mm, h = 1.6 mm, epsr = 4.5

Port2

VNA

50 Ω load

Near end

Far end

Appearance of non TEM propag. mode

50 Ω load

septum

Port1

  • The magnetic field coupling depends of the orientation of the line in the TEM cell.

+ 20 dB/dec.


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

Conducted methods

Radiated methods

TEM cell improvement

Investigation method

International standards for IC susceptibility measurement methods

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

Conducted immunity

  • Applying conducted disturbances directly to IC pin ?

Electronic equipment

Radiated disturbances

Victim circuit

Cables

PCB

Induced conducted disturbances

Equivalent Thevenin generator of RF disturbances

Cables, PCB lines

Zs

Input impedance of victim circuit

Zc, Td

ZL

Vs

58

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

Susceptibility threshold

Conducted immunity - IEC 62132-4 – Direct Power Injection (DPI)

  • Individual test of each sensitive IC pin.

Signal Synthesizer

Test on 1 pin

Decoupling network

Failure detection

> 400 Ω

Pforw

Prefl

Directional coupler

DPI Capacitor ( 1 – 10 nF)

Chip under test

Amplifier

  • Oscilloscope

  • Acquisition card

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

Conducted immunity - IEC 62132-4 – Direct Power Injection (DPI)

Example : DPI test on the power supply of an RF device

Forward power limit

  • Simple, repeatable, low power measurement

  • IC prequalification test

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

Conducted immunity - IEC 62132-4 – Direct Power Injection (DPI)

August 14


Emc measurements of components

EMC measurement for integrated circuits

Case study – Starcore EMC testing

  • The Starcore is 16-bit micro-controller used in automotive industry:

    • 16 bit MPU with 16 MHz external quartz, on-chip PLL providing internal 133 MHz operating clock

    • 128 Kb RAM, 3 general purpose ports (A, B, C, 8 bits), 4 analog inputs 12 bits, CAN interface

  • Prepare an EMC test plan: conducted emission (1 /150 Ω) and susceptibility test (DPI)

August 14


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