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Budget Management. Budget Management. Budget Development Good scheduling skills and abilities Understanding of the project scope Well developed WBS and project schedule. 57. Budget Management. Key reasons for overspending… Bad Luck Overly optimistic initial estimates Poor communication

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Budget Management

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Budget Management


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Budget Management

  • Budget Development

  • Good scheduling skills and abilities

  • Understanding of the project scope

  • Well developed WBS and project schedule

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Budget Management

  • Key reasons for overspending…

  • Bad Luck

  • Overly optimistic initial estimates

  • Poor communication

  • Poor cost/time estimating practices

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Budget Management

  • Three methods of estimating

  • Analogous Estimating

    • Uses values from previous, similar projects as the basis for estimating the same values for future activities or projects. Also called “Top-down” estimating.

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Budget Management

  • Three methods of estimating

  • Parametric Estimating

    • Uses statistical relationship between historical data and other variables to calculate an estimate for an activity or project.

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Budget Management

  • Three methods of estimating

  • Bottom-up Estimating

    • Decomposition of the work into smaller packages or more detail. Estimates are made at the lowest level and then summarizes, or aggregated, into the higher level activities.

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Budget Management

  • Cost Budgeting

  • The planning process that involves summarizing, or aggregating, the estimated costs for individual activities to establish a total cost baseline for the project.

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Budget Management

  • Cost Baseline

  • Time based budget that is used as a basis for measuring, monitoring, and controlling the overall cost performance of the project.

  • Also represents “Planned Value”

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Budget Management

Cost Baseline

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Budget Management

  • Cost Control

  • The process of influencing factors that create variances, and controlling changes to the project budget.

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Budget Management

  • Project cost control includes:

  • Ensuring changes are agreed upon

  • Managing changes when they occur

  • Assure potential cost overruns do not exceed authorized funding

  • Monitor cost performance and understand variances

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Budget Management

  • Project cost control includes:

  • Recording all appropriate changes against the cost baseline

  • Preventing incorrect, inappropriate, or unapproved changes

  • Inform stakeholders of approved changes

  • Acting to bring overruns within limits

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Budget Management

  • Cost Change Control System

  • Defines the procedures by which the cost baseline can be changed.

  • WSDOT policy found in the Project Control & Reporting Guide

  • Also documented in the Project Management Plan

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Earned Value Management

  • What is Earned Value Management (EVM)?

  • A method of integrating scope, schedule, and resources, and for measuring project performance.

  • It compares the amount of work that was planned with what was actually earned with what was actually spent to determine if cost and schedule performance are as planned.

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Earned Value Management

  • What is needed for EVM?

  • A baseline plan

  • A project budget (BAC – Budget at Completion)

  • A project end date

  • Tasks are identified & scheduled

  • Each task has a budget or effort (resource loaded / weighting)

  • Actuals tracked

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Earned Value Management

  • To perform EVM, three values need to be determined

  • Planned Value (PV or BCWS)

  • Actual Costs (AC or ACWP)

  • Earned Value (EV or BCWP)

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Earned Value Management

Planned Value (PV)

  • What are the budgeted costs of the work scheduled?

    • Time phased based on baseline budget

    • Only changes when baseline is changed

    • Also referred as “BCWS” & “BAC”

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Earned Value Management

Actual Costs (AC)

  • What are the actual costs of the work performed?

    • Based on the actual completion of work packages

    • Actual costs for reported work

    • Also referred as “ACWP”

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Earned Value Management

Earned Value (EV)

  • What are the budgeted costs of the work performed?

    • Based on the actual completion of work packages

    • Baseline value of the reported work

    • Also referred as “BCWP”

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Earned Value Management Example

  • Task – Drill & install 10 piezometers

  • Budget - $100,000 ($10K per piezometer)

  • Time – 10 weeks (1 piezometer per week)

  • At week 5:

  • 4 piezometers drilled and installed

  • $47,500 spent to date

PV = $50,000

AC = $47,500

EV = $40,000


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Earned Value Management

  • Calculating Earned Value and interpreting results

  • to measure the progress of the project

  • help identify trends

  • forecast costs

  • and identify ways to correct/mitigate project pitfalls.

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Earned Value Management

Cost Variance (CV)

CV = EV - AC

  • Good News: If CV value is positive, the project is currently under budget (spending less than planned for the work)

  • Bad News: If CV value is negative, the project is currently over budget (spending more than planned for the work)

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Earned Value Management

Cost Performance Index (CPI)

CPI = EV / AC

  • Good News: If CPI value is >1 or =1, the project cost trend is currently under or at planned budget

  • Bad News: If CPI value <1, the project cost trend is currently over budget

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Earned Value Management

Cost Variance % (CV%)

CV% = CV / EV

  • Good News: If CV% value is positive, the project is currently under budget by the CV%

  • Bad News: If CV% value is negative, the project is currently over budget by the CV%

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Earned Value Management

Schedule Variance (SV)

SV = EV - PV

  • Good News*: If SV value is positive, the project is currently ahead of schedule

  • Bad News: If SV value is negative, the project is currently behind schedule

  • * - not all positive SVs are good

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Earned Value Management

Schedule Performance Index (SPI)

SPI = EV / PV

  • Good News: If SPI value is >1 or =1, the project schedule trend is currently ahead or on planned schedule

  • Bad News: If SPI value <1, the project schedule trend is currently behind schedule

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Earned Value Management

Schedule Variance % (SV%)

SV% = SV / PV

  • Good News: If SV value is positive, the project is currently ahead of schedule

  • Bad News: If SV value is negative, the project is currently behind schedule

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Earned Value Management

Estimate at Completion (EAC)

#1

Actual costs to date plus a new estimate for all remaining work (original plan no longer valid)

EAC = AC + ETC

(ETCèEstimate to Complete)

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Earned Value Management

Estimate at Completion (EAC)

#2

Actual costs to date plus remaining budget (current variances are viewed as atypical of future variances)

EAC = AC + BAC - EV

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Earned Value Management

Estimate at Completion (EAC)

#3 & #4

Actual costs to date plus remaining budget modified by a performance factor (CPI) (current variances are viewed as typical of future variances).

EAC = AC + [(BAC - EV) / CPI]

EAC = BAC / CPI

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Earned Value Management Example

  • Task – Drill & install 10 piezometers

  • Budget - $100,000 ($10K per piezometer)

  • Time – 10 weeks (1 piezometer per week)

  • At week 5:

  • 4 piezometers drilled and installed

  • $47,500 spent to date

PV = $50,000

AC = $47,500

EV = $40,000

CV = -$7,500

CPI = 0.82

CV% = -19%

SV = -$10,000

SPI = 0.80

SV% = -20%


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Earned Value Scenario

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Earned Value Scenario

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Earned Value Scenario

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Earned Value Scenario

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Earned Value Scenario

BAC = $100,000 (current project budget)

EV = $42,000 (42% of project completed, $100,000 planned)

PV = $56,000 (56% of project planned $100,000 completed – initial aging report)

AC = $48,000 (from actual expenditures reporting)

Is this project on schedule / budget? Or is it in trouble?

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Earned Value Scenario

Cost Variance (CV):

CV = EV – AC

= $42,000 - $48,000

= - $6,000

Cost Performance Index (CPI):

CPI = EV / AC

= $42,000 / $48,000

= 0.875

Cost Variance % (CV%):

CV% = CV / EV

= - $6,000 / $42,000

= 14% OVER BUDGET

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Earned Value Scenario

Schedule Variance (SV):

SV = EV – PV

= $42,000 - $56,000

= - $14,000

Schedule Performance Index (SPI):

SPI = EV / PV

= $42,000 / $56,000

= 0.750

Schedule Variance % (SV%):

SV% = SV / PV

= - $14,000 / $56,000

= 25% BEHIND SCHEDULE

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Earned Value Scenario

Estimate at Completion (EAC):

Method #1:

EAC = AC + ETC (say $68,000)

= $48,000 + $68,000

= $116,000

(Change Management for $16,000 funds request)

Method #2:

EAC = AC + BAC – EV

= $48,000 + $100,000 - $42,000

= $106,000

(Change Management for $6,000 funds request)

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Earned Value Scenario

Estimate to Complete (ETC):

Method #3

EAC = AC + [(BAC – EV) / CPI]

= $48,000 + [($100,000 - $42,000) / 0.875]

= $48,000 + $66,285

= $114,285

(Change Management for $14,285 funds request)

Method #4

EAC = BAC / CPI

= $100,000 / 0.875

= $114,285

(Change Management for $14,285 funds request)

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Earned Value Scenario

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Budget Management

  • Module 6 Exercise

  • Work as a team to perform EVM on assigned project on page 69.

  • Prepare a report similar to the module scenario reporting project progress.

  • Brief class on methods of recovery, if needed, for project.

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Budget Management

  • Graphing Earned Value exercise

  • Gantt chart baseline (report)

  • EVM graph

  • Task information

  • Cost distribution

  • EVM worksheets


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Budget Management

  • Graphing Earned Value exercise

  • Planned Value (PV) is always shown in blue with circle nodes

  • Actual Cost (AC) is always shown in red with square nodes

  • Earned Value (EV) is always shown in green with triangle nodes


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Budget Management

  • Graphing Earned Value exercise

  • Work together as a team to calculate the task cost (task budget) for each task

  • Record these values on the worksheet with the total (BAC) calculated

  • Warning: Wait to plot on the EVM graph as a class – we will use the Cost Distribution Report


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$60K

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Budget Management

  • Graphing Earned Value – week 1

  • Task A started on time – 30% complete

  • Task B started 2 days late – 30% complete

  • Task C started 1 day late – 25% complete

  • Tasks D, E, F, G, H, and J have not started

  • Project Management is on-going

  • Actual Costs reported for week 1 = $5000


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$60K

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$60K

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Cost Variance

Schedule Variance


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