Literary relationships among the gospels
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Literary Relationships Among the Gospels. The Synoptic Problem. Similarities & Differences in the Synoptic Gospels. Close verbal agreement; sometimes identical Same story found in different forms – longer/shorter Same story told very differently

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Similarities differences in the synoptic gospels
Similarities & Differences in the Synoptic Gospels

  • Close verbal agreement; sometimes identical

  • Same story found in different forms – longer/shorter

  • Same story told very differently

  • Same incident in different chronological sequence


Proposed solutions to the question of relationships
Proposed Solutions to the Question of Relationships

  • The Utilization Hypothesis – the three gospels used each other

  • The Proto-Gospel Hypothesis – each of the three gospels used earlier sources: written and oral


Proposed solutions to the question of relationships1
Proposed Solutions to the Question of Relationships

  • The Tradition Hypothesis – the primary source used by all was oral tradition

  • The Multiple-Source Hypothesis – each used several types of sources: each other, other written sources, oral tradition


Since many have undertaken to set down an orderly account of the events that have been fulfilled among us, just as they were handed on to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word, I too decided, after investigating everything carefully from the very first, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, so that you may know the truth concerning the things about which you have been instructed.(New Revised Standard Version)


Augustine early church
Augustine – Early Church

  • Matthew was the first Gospel written and the others used each other successively:

    John Luke Mark Matthew


Two gospel theory
Two-Gospel Theory

Matthew

Luke

Mark

Matthew written first,then Luke used Matthew, then Mark used Matthew and Luke as his two sources.


Two source theory
Two Source Theory

Mark Q

Matthew Luke

Mark and Q were written first. Matthew and Luke used these two as their sources. Q = a “sayings of Jesus” collection; a theoretical document.


Four source theory
Four Source Theory

Mark Q

M L

Matthew Luke

Matthew and Luke used Mark, Q, M, and L as sources.

M = special material only found in Matthew

L = special material only found in Luke


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