Anglicky v odborn ch p edm tech support of teaching technical subjects in english
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Anglicky v odborných předmětech "Support of teaching technical subjects in English “. Tutorial: Economic Lyceum Topic: Economic State Policy Prepared by : Ing. Lenka Gabrielová. Projekt Anglicky v odborných předmětech, CZ.1.07/1.3.09/04.0002

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Anglicky v odborných předmětech "Support of teaching technical subjects in English “

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Anglicky v odborn ch p edm tech support of teaching technical subjects in english

Anglicky v odborných předmětech"Support ofteachingtechnicalsubjects in English“

Tutorial: Economic Lyceum

Topic: Economic State Policy

Prepared by: Ing. Lenka Gabrielová

Projekt Anglicky v odborných předmětech, CZ.1.07/1.3.09/04.0002

je spolufinancován Evropským sociálním fondem a státním rozpočtem České republiky.


The central bank tools

The central bank tools


The central bank tools1

The central bank tools

  • Direct tools of monetary policy:

  • They are mainly selective, direct, administratively difficult; therefore, they are used rarely and only temporarily.

  • The advantage is that the central bank tools cannot be bypassed by commercial banks. By means of these tools the central bank affects their monetary base, money supply and stability of the banking sector.


Direct tools of monetary policy

Direct tools of monetary policy

  • Liquidity rules – thecentral bank sets obligatory structures of assets and liabilities of commercial banks ensuring their stability and thus the stability of the whole banking sector (e.g. capital appropriateness, share of deposits in the loans, etc.).

  • Interest limits – the interest limits are minimal rate loans and minimal or maximal deposit rates. By means of these the central bank regulates size of savings in the economy, size of loans, money demand, etc.

  • Credit limits –credit limits are absolute and relative limits


Direct tools of monetary policy1

Direct tools of monetary policy

  • Mandatory deposits – a duty of some organizations is to keep accounts at the central bank, to carry out transactions or to save money (mostly public authorities – the central bank in the Czech Republic manages state budget accounts, state funds,…)

  • Recommendations, challenges, gentlemen's agreements

  • Recommendations – it is an oral expression of central bank wishes how the central bank should behave (e.g. when dealing with credit exposure)

  • Challenges – they do not have to be in a written form, but they are much stronger.

  • Gentlemen's agreements are in a writtenform and their form is binding


Indirect central bank tools

Indirect central bank tools

  • Indirect tools of monetary policy

  • they are unaddressed and general. When they are used, they have to be in accordance with market access because they have wider influence.


Indirect tools of monetary policy

Indirect tools of monetary policy

  • Open market operations – these are the commonly used tools in the market of developed economies, mostly it includes purchase or sale of high quality securities (direct operations, reoperation)

  • Discount tools- loans provided by the central bank to commercial banks and rates from these loans (loan discount, rediscount loans, lombard loan).

  • Mandatory minimum reserves –it is a tool stabilizing the banking sector


Indirect tools of monetary policy1

Indirect tools of monetary policy

  • Obligatory minimum reserves=it is a rate of obligatory minimum reserves set by the central bank = a percentage of non-bank deposits in commercial banks that must be saved at the central bank – mostly they are interest free

  • Foreign exchange interventions – the aim is to maintain the optimal exchange rate (direct and indirect interventions)


Inflation targeting

Inflation targeting

  • By means of inflation targeting the central bank can reach more rational inflation expectations and also the central bank may influence the actual level of inflation expectations according to its purpose.

  • The mechanism of inflation targeting – the central bank sets an objective that should be fulfilled and develops inflation prognosis. If the prognosis differs from the predetermined objective, the monetary tools have to be used.


Questions

Questions

  • How can the central bank affect the inflation rate in coming seasons?

  • Do gentlemen's agreements and challenges belong to direct or indirect monetary policy tools?


Bibliography

Bibliography

  • Czech National Bank, available on WWW: www.cnb.cz

  • HAMERNÍKOVÁ, B. a KUBÁTOVÁ, K.: Veřejné finance – učebnice, Eurolex Bohemia, Praha , 2000

  • SLANÝ, Antonín, ŽÁK, Milan: Hospodářská politika, Praha, C.H.Beck, 1999

  • VOSTROVSKÁ, Zdena, VORLÍČEK, Jan: Úvod do hospodářské a sociální politiky, Praha, VŠE, 2005


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