Physics and Chemistry of Multifunctional Materials
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Physics and Chemistry of Multifunctional Materials June 25th to July 9th 2006 Genova - Italy Biomaterials - Biopolymers. Kim Kusk Mortensen Dept. of Molecular Biology Aarhus University Aarhus - Denmark. Biopolymers Lecture disposition. Fibers, hair, horn, skin and storage Examples and uses

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Kim Kusk Mortensen Dept. of Molecular Biology Aarhus University Aarhus - Denmark

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Physics and Chemistry of Multifunctional MaterialsJune 25th to July 9th 2006Genova - ItalyBiomaterials - Biopolymers

Kim Kusk Mortensen

Dept. of Molecular Biology

Aarhus University

Aarhus - Denmark


BiopolymersLecture disposition

  • Fibers, hair, horn, skin and storage

    • Examples and uses

  • DNA, Protein and Carbohydrates

    • Chemistry, structure and functions

  • Design of novel functions


Examples and uses

  • Fibers

    • Vegetable fibers

      • Cellulose

    • Animal fibers

      • Keratin

      • Collagen

      • Fibroin

  • Storage

    • Starch

    • Glycogen


Vegetable fibersSeed fibers (cellulose)

Cotton

Kapok


Vegetable fibersFruit fiber (cellulose)

Used for the manufacture of dormats, brushes and insulation

Coconut

Coir


Vegetable fibersLeaf fiber (cellulose)

Sisal (agave)


Vegetable fibersBast fiber (cellulose)

Jute

Fibers for rope manufacturing

Retting


Vegetable fibersBast fiber (cellulose)

Hemp

Flax (linen)

Kenaf

Nettles

… also trees, papyrus, soybean, ocra, banana… and many other plants

Used for manufacturing of ropes, yarn, paper, burlap (hessian)


Vegetable fibersStalk fiber (cellulose)

Straws of wheat, rice, barley, and other crops including bamboo, rattan and grass

Used for numerous purposes, eg building materials

Rattan chair


Vegetable carbohydratesStorage (starch, glycogen)

Electron micrograph of liver tissue


Animal fibersHair (protein – keratin)

Wool from sheep, goats, rabbits and llamas is used for the manufacturing of yarn, textiles and felt.


Animal fibersSinews, skin, cartilage, and bones (protein – collagen)

Production of glue, gelatin and collagen


Animal fibersSilk (protein – fibroin)


Chemistry, structure and functions

  • DNA

    • Building blocks

    • Structure

    • Function

  • Protein

    • Building blocks

    • Structures

    • Self assembly

    • Examples

  • Carbohydrates

    • Building blocks

    • Structures

    • Examples


DNA (RNA) - carrier of informationBuilding blocks

  • Deoxyribonucleic acid

    • Four building blocks – A, T, C, G (bases)

    • Two base pairs – A:T and G:C

  • Ribonucleic acid

    • Four building blocks – A, U, C, G (bases)

    • Two base pairs – A:U and G:C

    • Both 2’ and 3’ hydroxyls on ribose

dATP

ATP


DNA (RNA) replication


DNA (RNA) structure


DNA – bacterial kromosome


DNA and RNA function

  • Keeper of information (DNA)

  • Carrier of information (DNA and mRNA)

  • Transport and fidelity (tRNA)

  • Control of transcription (siRNA)

  • Control of translation (tmRNA, mRNA)

  • Ribozymes (RNA-enzymes, Ribosome)


Protein - carrier of function

  • Polymer of amino acids

  • Only L-amino acidsin natural proteins


Polypeptide synthesis

  • Peptide bond formation


20 different natural amino acids


Polypeptide sequence of amino acids - coded by the DNA sequence


Protein structureSelf assembly


Protein function

  • Enzyme

  • Transport

  • Timers

  • Fidelity

  • Controle

  • Structural proteins


Keratin

Hair, horns, skin, nails, hoofs and tortoise shells are made of keratin


Collagen

Sinews, skin, cartilage, and bones


Silk (fibroin)


CarbohydratesMono- and disaccharides

  • Polymers of sugar-monomers

Sucrose/

Saccharose

Sucrose

Lactose

Fructose

Maltose

Galactose


CarbohydratesPolysaccharides


CarbohydratesSynthesis and degradation

  • Enzymatic catalysed synthesis

  • Structure and sequence is enzyme coded

  • Enzymatic catalysed degradation


Polysaccharides structureCellulose


Polysaccharide structureXylans


Polysaccharide structureChitin: polyglucosamin


Polysaccharide structureStarch: Amylose and amylopectin


Polysaccharide structureGlycogen


Polysaccharide structureDextran

Leuconostoc mesenteroides

Dextran-sucrase

n Sucrose (glucose)n + n fructose

Dextran


Polysaccharide structureAgar - agarose

(galactose-3,6-anhydrogalactose)n


Design of novel functions

  • Nano-materials

    • Defined layers

    • Surfaces

    • Tubes - conductors

  • Multi-diciplinary development

    • DNA and Protein

    • Carbohydrates

    • Organic chemistry

    • Inorganic chemistry

    • Electrochemistry


Self assembly

  • Exploite biopolymer association

    • Selectivity

    • Specificity

    • Affinity

  • Develop binding koordination

    • Surface grafting

    • Sequential binding

    • Enzymatic activation

    • Bloking and deblocking


Self-assembling structuresExample: Virus coat Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV)


Selectivity and affinityAvidin (streptavidin) - Biotin

Biotin

Kd ≈ 10-14 - 10-15

Avidin


Surface design


Surface design

PNA

Peptide Nucleic Acid


Linking DNA sequence to protein functionPhage-display


Artificial spider webNEXUS

Spider glands

Fibroin produced in a transgenic goat


Future materials


Future materials

Nanotubes

Nanosheets


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