Physics and Chemistry of Multifunctional Materials
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Physics and Chemistry of Multifunctional Materials June 25th to July 9th 2006 Genova - Italy Biomaterials - Biopolymers. Kim Kusk Mortensen Dept. of Molecular Biology Aarhus University Aarhus - Denmark. Biopolymers Lecture disposition. Fibers, hair, horn, skin and storage Examples and uses

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Kim Kusk Mortensen Dept. of Molecular Biology Aarhus University Aarhus - Denmark

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Kim kusk mortensen dept of molecular biology aarhus university aarhus denmark

Physics and Chemistry of Multifunctional MaterialsJune 25th to July 9th 2006Genova - ItalyBiomaterials - Biopolymers

Kim Kusk Mortensen

Dept. of Molecular Biology

Aarhus University

Aarhus - Denmark


Biopolymers lecture disposition

BiopolymersLecture disposition

  • Fibers, hair, horn, skin and storage

    • Examples and uses

  • DNA, Protein and Carbohydrates

    • Chemistry, structure and functions

  • Design of novel functions


Examples and uses

Examples and uses

  • Fibers

    • Vegetable fibers

      • Cellulose

    • Animal fibers

      • Keratin

      • Collagen

      • Fibroin

  • Storage

    • Starch

    • Glycogen


Vegetable fibers seed fibers cellulose

Vegetable fibersSeed fibers (cellulose)

Cotton

Kapok


Vegetable fibers fruit fiber cellulose

Vegetable fibersFruit fiber (cellulose)

Used for the manufacture of dormats, brushes and insulation

Coconut

Coir


Vegetable fibers leaf fiber cellulose

Vegetable fibersLeaf fiber (cellulose)

Sisal (agave)


Vegetable fibers bast fiber cellulose

Vegetable fibersBast fiber (cellulose)

Jute

Fibers for rope manufacturing

Retting


Vegetable fibers bast fiber cellulose1

Vegetable fibersBast fiber (cellulose)

Hemp

Flax (linen)

Kenaf

Nettles

… also trees, papyrus, soybean, ocra, banana… and many other plants

Used for manufacturing of ropes, yarn, paper, burlap (hessian)


Vegetable fibers stalk fiber cellulose

Vegetable fibersStalk fiber (cellulose)

Straws of wheat, rice, barley, and other crops including bamboo, rattan and grass

Used for numerous purposes, eg building materials

Rattan chair


Vegetable carbohydrates storage starch glycogen

Vegetable carbohydratesStorage (starch, glycogen)

Electron micrograph of liver tissue


Animal fibers hair protein keratin

Animal fibersHair (protein – keratin)

Wool from sheep, goats, rabbits and llamas is used for the manufacturing of yarn, textiles and felt.


Animal fibers sinews skin cartilage and bones protein collagen

Animal fibersSinews, skin, cartilage, and bones (protein – collagen)

Production of glue, gelatin and collagen


Animal fibers silk protein fibroin

Animal fibersSilk (protein – fibroin)


Chemistry structure and functions

Chemistry, structure and functions

  • DNA

    • Building blocks

    • Structure

    • Function

  • Protein

    • Building blocks

    • Structures

    • Self assembly

    • Examples

  • Carbohydrates

    • Building blocks

    • Structures

    • Examples


Dna rna carrier of information building blocks

DNA (RNA) - carrier of informationBuilding blocks

  • Deoxyribonucleic acid

    • Four building blocks – A, T, C, G (bases)

    • Two base pairs – A:T and G:C

  • Ribonucleic acid

    • Four building blocks – A, U, C, G (bases)

    • Two base pairs – A:U and G:C

    • Both 2’ and 3’ hydroxyls on ribose

dATP

ATP


Dna rna replication

DNA (RNA) replication


Dna rna structure

DNA (RNA) structure


Dna bacterial kromosome

DNA – bacterial kromosome


Dna and rna function

DNA and RNA function

  • Keeper of information (DNA)

  • Carrier of information (DNA and mRNA)

  • Transport and fidelity (tRNA)

  • Control of transcription (siRNA)

  • Control of translation (tmRNA, mRNA)

  • Ribozymes (RNA-enzymes, Ribosome)


Protein carrier of function

Protein - carrier of function

  • Polymer of amino acids

  • Only L-amino acidsin natural proteins


Polypeptide synthesis

Polypeptide synthesis

  • Peptide bond formation


20 different natural amino acids

20 different natural amino acids


Polypeptide sequence of amino acids coded by the dna sequence

Polypeptide sequence of amino acids - coded by the DNA sequence


Protein structure self assembly

Protein structureSelf assembly


Protein function

Protein function

  • Enzyme

  • Transport

  • Timers

  • Fidelity

  • Controle

  • Structural proteins


Keratin

Keratin

Hair, horns, skin, nails, hoofs and tortoise shells are made of keratin


Collagen

Collagen

Sinews, skin, cartilage, and bones


Silk fibroin

Silk (fibroin)


Carbohydrates mono and disaccharides

CarbohydratesMono- and disaccharides

  • Polymers of sugar-monomers

Sucrose/

Saccharose

Sucrose

Lactose

Fructose

Maltose

Galactose


Carbohydrates polysaccharides

CarbohydratesPolysaccharides


Carbohydrates synthesis and degradation

CarbohydratesSynthesis and degradation

  • Enzymatic catalysed synthesis

  • Structure and sequence is enzyme coded

  • Enzymatic catalysed degradation


Polysaccharides structure cellulose

Polysaccharides structureCellulose


Polysaccharide structure xylans

Polysaccharide structureXylans


Polysaccharide structure chitin polyglucosamin

Polysaccharide structureChitin: polyglucosamin


Polysaccharide structure starch amylose and amylopectin

Polysaccharide structureStarch: Amylose and amylopectin


Polysaccharide structure glycogen

Polysaccharide structureGlycogen


Polysaccharide structure dextran

Polysaccharide structureDextran

Leuconostoc mesenteroides

Dextran-sucrase

n Sucrose (glucose)n + n fructose

Dextran


Polysaccharide structure agar agarose

Polysaccharide structureAgar - agarose

(galactose-3,6-anhydrogalactose)n


Design of novel functions

Design of novel functions

  • Nano-materials

    • Defined layers

    • Surfaces

    • Tubes - conductors

  • Multi-diciplinary development

    • DNA and Protein

    • Carbohydrates

    • Organic chemistry

    • Inorganic chemistry

    • Electrochemistry


Self assembly

Self assembly

  • Exploite biopolymer association

    • Selectivity

    • Specificity

    • Affinity

  • Develop binding koordination

    • Surface grafting

    • Sequential binding

    • Enzymatic activation

    • Bloking and deblocking


Self assembling structures example virus coat cowpea chlorotic mottle virus ccmv

Self-assembling structuresExample: Virus coat Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV)


Selectivity and affinity avidin streptavidin biotin

Selectivity and affinityAvidin (streptavidin) - Biotin

Biotin

Kd ≈ 10-14 - 10-15

Avidin


Surface design

Surface design


Surface design1

Surface design

PNA

Peptide Nucleic Acid


Linking dna sequence to protein function phage display

Linking DNA sequence to protein functionPhage-display


Artificial spider web nexus

Artificial spider webNEXUS

Spider glands

Fibroin produced in a transgenic goat


Future materials

Future materials


Future materials1

Future materials

Nanotubes

Nanosheets


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