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Fundamental constants. Time Variation. and their. H. Fritzsch LMU / MPI Munich. Fundamental constants. Particles Nuclei Atoms Lasers Solid State Physics Astrophysics Cosmology. Outline.

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Fundamental

constants

Time Variation

and their

H. Fritzsch

LMU / MPI Munich


Fundamental constants

  • Particles

  • Nuclei

  • Atoms

  • Lasers

  • Solid State Physics

  • Astrophysics

  • Cosmology


Outline

Standard Model32 Fundamental ConstantsFine-structure ConstantOklo PhenomenonQuark MassesTime Variation of Fine-structure ConstantGrand UnificationPrediction for Quantum OpticsExperiment at MPQ


Particle Physics

gauge theories


1935

W. Heisenberg

W. Pauli

minimal interaction


Hermann weyl
Hermann Weyl:

electromagnetic interaction has

local gauge symmetry

U(1) - phase rotations

QED

gauge theory


-

1950

Feynman

Schwinger

QED: renormalizable


Non abelian gauge theory wolfgang pauli chen ning yang robert mills ronald shaw

1954

Non-Abelian Gauge TheoryWolfgang PauliChen Ning Yang – Robert MillsRonald Shaw

( ph.d. - student of Tom Kibble )


weak interactions

1957:

W-bosons

W

J. Schwinger


since 1964:

electroweak

gauge theory


SU(2)xU(1)

weak

interactions

electromagnetism

neutral current

CERN 1972


SU(2) x U(1)

Glashow, Salam - Ward, Weinberg

1964-1968


Strong Interactions

proton mass

masses of nuclei




1971

q=>

q

q

q

r

g

b

SU(3)

c


b

r

g


1972

QCD

Fritzsch Gell-Mann



1973:

Standard Model

SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1)


problem

===>

32

fundamental

constants


32 Fundamental constants

number of space dimensions 1number of time dimensions 1number of colors 1number of families 1Newtons constant G 1 fine structure constant 1coupling constant of strong interaction 1coupling constant of weak interaction 1mass of W boson 1mass of Higgs boson 1masses of 6 quarks and 6 leptons 12 flavor mixing of quarks 4flavor mixing of leptons 6

-

32


32

(22 related to fermion masses)



Determined by dynamics changing in time

Fundamental

constants

Determined by Dynamics?Changing in Time?

. . . . . . .


Cosmic accidents

Fundamental

constants

Cosmic Accidents?



Cosmic accidents?

Universe

=> Multiverse



Arnold sommerfeld 1916
Arnold Sommerfeld, 1916

fine-structure constant


fine-structure constant

=0.00729735253

~1/137


unifiying electrodynamics,

relativity,

quantum theory


Solvay

Sommerfeld

Planck, Lorentz, Curie, Rutherford, Poincare, Einstein


Pauli 1958 nr 137 z rich
Pauli (1958): Nr 137, Zürich.............


Leon Lederman

137 Eola Road


137

how little

we know

Feynman:


QED: Most successful theory in science. Merging of electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and special relativity.Renormalizable theory, tested up to 1:10 000 000(Lamb shift, hyperfine splitting, magnetic moments)


Quantum Field Theory: electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and special relativity.

Finestructure constant becomes function of energy or scale due to quantum fluctuations of electron-positron pairs

=> partial screening of bare charge of the electron at distances less than the compton wavelength of the electron


partial screening electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and special relativity.

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

charge gets larger at high

energy


ALEPH electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and special relativity.

LEP / LHC

L3

Alice

CMS

SPS

ATLAS

OPAL

DELPHI

LHCb

LEP: e+e– Kollisionen 1989 – 2000

LHC: p–p Kollisionen ab 2007

Europäisches Zentrum für Teilchenphysik CERN / Genf

LEP


Lep 1 127

LEP: ~ 1/127 electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and special relativity.

agrees with theory


Oklo Phenomen electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and special relativity.

About 1.8 billion years ago, in Gabon, Westafrika.

Natural Reactor, which operated about 100 million years.

High concentration of uranium

3.7% U 235 at that time (today 0.72 %)

Moderator: water from river Oklo


Geological Situation in Gabon leading to natural nuclear fission reactors1. Nuclear reactor zones2. Sandstone3. Uranium ore layer4. Granite


Discovered in the 1970ties by french fission reactors

nuclear physicists

It was found:

Uranium 235 less that the normal rate

Normally: 0.720 %

==further investigation

Natural reactor


Shlyakhter dyson and damour 1996
Shlyakhter, fission reactorsDyson and Damour (1996)

samarium

Neutron Capture

Sm(149) + n =>Sm(150) + gamma

cross section about 57 … 93 kb

very large cross section due to

nuclear resonance just above threshold: E=0.0973 eV

Resonance position cannot have changed much.

Change less than 0.1 eV

=> constraint on elm. interaction:

alpha(Oklo)-alpha(now)/alpha

<1/10 000 000

Dyson, Damour


-16 fission reactors

Change of alpha per year

must be less than

per year

(if no other parameters change)

==>constraint questionable

10


Other fundamental constants nucleon mass
Other fundamental constants: fission reactorsNucleon mass!?

==> QCD


Qcd mass from no mass dimensional transmutation anti screening of color infrared slavery

What is the nucleon mass? fission reactors

QCD

Mass from „no-mass“

(dimensional transmutation)

„Anti-screening“ of color –

infrared slavery

S. Coleman


Mass from no-mass fission reactors

1 /

dimensional transmutation


About 250 mev mass confined field energy
:about 250 MeV fission reactorsMass: confined field energy

Experiments:

Mass in QCD is fully understood -

dynamically generated

(not, however, the quark masses)


Nucleon mass in limit of vanishing quark masses

Nucleon Mass in limit of vanishing quark masses: fission reactors

const. calculable: error about 2% (Juelich)

Exp: 938.272 MeV

First calculation of a mass in physics


Nucleon Mass in QCD: fission reactors

Nuleon mass: QCD mass and mass

contributions from the quark masses

QCD u d s QED

862 + 20 + 19 + 35 + 2

M(proton) =


Masses of W-Bosons are fission reactors

generated by symmetry breaking

( B-E-G-H-H-K ) - Mechanism )

( Brout - Englert - Guralnik - Hagen - Higgs - Kibble )


Mass and Symmetry Breaking fission reactors

Higgs particle

Fermi constant


renormalizable like QED fission reactors

M. Veltman

G. tHooft


ALEPH fission reactors

LEP / LHC

L3

Alice

CMS

SPS

ATLAS

OPAL

DELPHI

LHCb

LEP: e+e– Kollisionen 1989 – 2000

LHC: p–p Kollisionen ab 2007

Europäisches Zentrum für Teilchenphysik CERN / Genf

LHC


muon fission reactors

H===> Z Z

LHC

Higgs particle


The dark corner of hep fermion masses arbitrary

???Higgs mech.??? fission reactors

The Dark Corner of HEPFermion Masses: Arbitrary

R

246 GeV

g

L

g


246 GeV fission reactors

g


relations between lepton masses? fission reactors

Bjorken:

observed: 0.00484


Quark masses
Quark Masses: fission reactors

relations between quark masses?

  • Observed:

    m(c) : m(t) = m(u):m(c)

    1/207 1/207

    m(s):m(b) = m(d):m(s)

    1/23 1/23


ln m fission reactors

b

c

s

d

?

u


ln m fission reactors

b

c

s

d

u


ln m fission reactors

t

b

c

s

d

u


ln m fission reactors

174 GeV

t

b

c

s

d

u

predicting t-mass (1987)


Fermilab 1995 fission reactors

m(t) = 174 GeV


ln m fission reactors

tau

mu

e?

e


It is normally assumed in the Standard Model that the fundamental constants of nature are universal, i.e. the same everywhere and at all times.


No reason that the fundamental parameteres are constant in time and space
No reason, that the fundamental parameteres are fundamental constants of nature are universal, i.e. the same everywhere and at all times.constant in time and space.


Why time variation
Why time variation? fundamental constants of nature are universal, i.e. the same everywhere and at all times.

Extra space dimensions

(e.g. in Superstring theories). Any change in size of these dimensions would manifest itself in the 3D world as variation of fundamental constants.


Why time variation1
Why time variation? fundamental constants of nature are universal, i.e. the same everywhere and at all times.

Scalar fields .

Fundamental constants depend on scalar fields which vary in space and time. May be related to “dark energy” and accelerated expansion of the Universe.


Strong limits on time variation of constants, related to the stable matter:Newtons constant, fine structure constant, mass of electron, QCD scale


Weak limits for all constants, stable matter:related to unstable particles( mass of myon, mass of s-quark, …, flavor mixing angles, mass of W-boson, …)


1686 stable matter:

Newtons

constant

of gravity


1686 stable matter:


Time variation of fundamental constants dirac 1930
Time Variation of fundamental constants: stable matter:Dirac (~1930)

Time Variation of

Newtons constant G


Time Variation of Newtons constant G stable matter:

of order

per year

(only recently excluded

by satellite experiments)


Time variation of natural constants? stable matter:

Time Variation of alpha?

Observation of

fine structure of atomic levels

Quasars

5-7 billion years back


Quasar absorption spectra
Quasar absorption spectra stable matter:

Light

earth

gas

quasar


Keck telescope stable matter:

Hawaii


Experiment at Keck telescope stable matter:

(Australia, England, USA)

Fine structure of Fe, Ni, Mg, Sn, A -

Quasars, back to 11 bn years in time

( Webb, Wolf, Flambaum...)


Grand unification
Grand unification stable matter:

SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1)

==>SO(10)

( Fritzsch - Minkowski; Georgi - 1975 )


SO(10) stable matter:

SO(6) x SO(4)

SU(4) x SU(2,L) x SU(2,R)

SU(3) x SU(2,L) x U(1)


SO(10) stable matter:

SO(6) x SO(4)

_

SU(4) x SU(2,L) x SU(2,R)

_

SU(3) x SU(2,L) x U(1)

_


Electroweak theory su 2 x su 2 x u 1

In SO(10): stable matter:

lefthanded and

righthanded neutrinos

Electroweak theory:SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1)

L

R

New energy scale for righthanded SU(2)

related to neutrino masses? - consistent with LEP unlike SU(5)


Grand Unification stable matter:

3 coupling constants

elm., weak and strong int.

reduced to two parameters:

unif. scale and unified coupling

(one constant less)


Problem for su 5 no convergence of the three coupling constants wihout supersymmetry
Problem for SU(5): stable matter:no convergence of the three coupling constantswihout supersymmetry


- stable matter:

without supersymmetry

-

with supersymmetry

GeV

-


SO(10) stable matter:

Fermions in 16-plet

(incl. righthanded neutrinos)


Leptons and Quarks in SO(10) stable matter:

Neutrinos

have a

mass

O(10)


1/coupling constant stable matter:

Grand Unification

energy

=================


time change of alpha? stable matter:


1/coupling constant stable matter:

Grand Unification

energy

=================


1/coupling constant stable matter:

Grand Unification

energy

=================


1/coupling constant stable matter:

Grand Unification

energy

=================


1/coupling constant stable matter:

Grand Unification

energy

=================


If the scale of unification does not change one finds
If the scale of unification does not change, one finds: stable matter:

Calmet, Fritzsch - Langacker, Segre (2002)




change of per year

change of

no problem with constraint from Oklo

( effects can cancel )


Can this be tested by per year

experiments?


Time: measured by Cesium clocks per year

Hyperfine transition, involving the magnetic moment of the cesium nucleus.

Would be affected by time change of QCD scale

Cesium: 9 192 631 770 Hz

(definition of time)


Comparison per year

Cs-clock

Hydrogen clock

Difference: 3 CS oscillations per day

Experiment at MPQ Munich

and NIST Boulder

(T. Hänsch, MPQ)

Nobel prize 2006


Mpq experiment
MPQ-Experiment per year

486 nm dye laser in hydrogen

spectrometer

Reference: cesium clock Pharao LPTF Paris

Hydrogen: 1s-2s transition

2 466 061 413 187 127 (18) Hz


Expected in simple model about 10 times more
Expected in simple model: per yearabout 10 times more

Measurement:

seems excluded!


Simultaneous change per year

of the unified coupling constant and the unification scale?


1/coupling constant per year

Grand Unification

energy

=================


Partial Cancellation of the effect? per year

(expected in superstring models)


cancellation per year


Indication for effect in the per year

new experiment at the MPQ:

(Hänsch, preliminary)


Reinhold et al., 2006 per year

VLT Chile


Reinhold et al. PRL 96 (2006) per year

2 quasars, 12 bn. years away

Looking for time variation of ratio proton mass / electron mass

One finds:

_________________


H nsch finds the same effect
Hänsch finds the same effect per year

(same sign)


If true: per year

All masses of atomic nuclei will depend on time!

energy not strictly conserved


Summary per year

32 constants of nature

24 constants are mass parameters

Grand unification relates elm., strong and weak

interactions.

Time variation of alpha leads to time variation of the

QCD scale and of the weak interactions

MPQ Experiment rules out simplest model, but effect

seems to be there, about a factor 10 less than naively

expected, consistent mit observed variation of

electron-proton-massratio.


Necessary: per year

Both unification scale

and

unified coupling

must change in time.

(expected in superstring models)


QCD mass scale changes in time per year

===>

Masses of atomic nuclei

change in time


All fundamental constants are not constants but functions of time
All fundamental constants are not constants, per yearbut functions of time?

===> cosmology?




Every universe has per year

different fundamental constants


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