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Stroke. Maxwell Lenko SBI3U ISU. Terms. Blood Vessel – a tube through which blood moves through the body Artery – a blood vessel that carries blood directly from the heart through the body Hemorrhage – the escape of blood into an extra vascular area

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Stroke

Stroke

Maxwell Lenko

SBI3U

ISU


Terms
Terms

  • Blood Vessel – a tube through which blood moves through the body

  • Artery – a blood vessel that carries blood directly from the heart through the body

  • Hemorrhage – the escape of blood into an extra vascular area

  • Atherosclerosis – the deposition of cholesterol in an artery

  • Thrombosis – a clot that forms in an artery and blocks it

  • Embolism – a dislodged clot that blocks another artery


Definition
Definition

  • A stroke is: the damaging of brain cells due to blood flow interruption

  • There are 3 types of strokes:

  • Ischemic Stroke

  • Intracerebral Hemorrhage

  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage


Ischemic stroke
Ischemic Stroke

  • Responsible for 80% of all strokes

  • Results from a clot in an artery in the brain, either through thrombosis or embolism

www.memorylossonline.com/glossary/images/stroke.jpg


Intracerebral hemorrhage
Intracerebral Hemorrhage

  • 12% of all strokes

  • Artery in the brain suddenly ruptures; releases blood into the brain and compresses it

  • If blood builds up rapidly victim can become unconscious

  • Usually occurs in the cerebellum, basal ganglia, cortex or brain stem

http://www.dhushara.com/book/brainp/brainil/brain.jpg


Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

  • 8% of all strokes

  • Caused by blood vessel rupture

  • Different from intracerebral in that blood surrounds the brain instead of filling it

  • Sudden build up of blood can cause unconsciousness or even death

  • Said to cause the “worst headache of one’s life”

http://www.strokecenter.org/pat/viewer/sah/sah_coronal_berry_2_500.jpg


Causes of artery rupture clotting

Controllable

High Blood Pressure

Cholesterol

Smoking

Atrial Fibrillation

Diet

Lack of Exercise

Uncontrollable

Over age 55

Being Male

African American

Hispanic

Asian/Pacific Islander

Family history

Diabetes

Causes of Artery Rupture/ Clotting


Immediate symptoms
Immediate Symptoms

  • Paralysis

  • Sudden Weakness

  • Unconsciousness

  • Death (not as immediate)

  • Loss of Speech


Post stroke symptoms
Post-Stroke Symptoms

  • Involuntary Muscle Contraction

  • Balance Problems

  • Curling of Toes

  • Central Pain Syndrome

  • Aphasia (limited communication)

  • Apraxia (difficulty initiating speech causing movements )

  • Auditory Overload ( inability to convert sound to language )

  • Dysarthia ( slurring of speech )

  • Dysphagia ( food goes down air tube instead of esophagus )

  • Depression

  • One-Side Neglect

  • Behavioral Changes

  • Other Subtle Brain Difficulties


Diagnosis
Diagnosis

  • Doctor can perform a number of tests

  • Risk Factors

  • Carotid Ultrasonography

  • Arteriography

  • Computerized Tomography (CAT scan)

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)


Immediate treatment
Immediate Treatment

  • For an ischemic stroke doctor will remove clot using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) drugs

  • For a hemorrhage a tiny clip is placed to close the aneurysm or a coil is placed in it to prevent further rupturing


Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation

  • Occurs in either a hospital, subacute care unit, rehab hospital, home therapy, home with outpatient therapy, long term care facility

  • Therapists such as physicians and speech therapists are required to re-establish basic skills for independence

  • Nursing is very important

  • Rehab time is dependent on damage to brain cells


Current future research
Current/Future Research

  • Research into implantable pacemakers, artificial hearts, using acetylsalicylic acid in prevention of strokes, clot dissolving drugs (eg. tPA), increasing public awareness about strokes, updating and developing new methods of CPR, bionics, and the promotion of recommendations to the public to deal with high blood pressure


Miscellaneous facts
Miscellaneous Facts

  • 75% of all strokes are preventable

  • One of the most common causes of death amongst elders in the Western world

  • Third leading cause of death in America

  • First leading cause of adult disability

  • Women more likely to die


References
References

___ (1998). Stroke. In Encyclopedia of Family Health (vol. 14, pp. 1876- 1881). Toronto: Marshall Cavendish.

American Stroke Association. “Warning Signs”, “Life After Stroke”. Retrieved April 8, 2007 from the World Wide Web: < http://www.strokeassociation.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=12000372 >

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2006). Mayo Clinic Family Health Book Third Edition. New York. Harper Collins Publishers.

National Stroke Association. “What’s a Stroke?”, “Risk Factors”, “Prevention”, “Recovery”. Retrieved April 8, 2007 on the World Wide

Web: < http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=home >.

The Internet Stroke Center. “Types of Stroke”. Retrieved April 8, 2007 from the World Wide Web:

< http://www.strokecenter.org/pat/stroke_types.htm >

The Heart and Stroke Foundation. “All about Research”. Retrieved June 4, 2007 from the World Wide Web: <http://ww2.heartandstroke.ca/Page.asp?PageID=1366&ArticleID=5533&Src=blank&From=SubCategory >.


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