pass a phonological awareness intervention program for at risk preschool children
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
PASS : A Phonological Awareness Intervention Program for At-Risk Preschool Children

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 23

PASS: A Phonological Awareness Intervention Program for At-Risk Preschool Children - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 643 Views
  • Uploaded on

PASS : A Phonological Awareness Intervention Program for At-Risk Preschool Children. Froma P. Roth, Ph.D. Colleen K. Worthington, M.S. University of Maryland Gary A. Troia, Ph.D. Michigan State University. Key Concepts.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'PASS: A Phonological Awareness Intervention Program for At-Risk Preschool Children' - trevina


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
pass a phonological awareness intervention program for at risk preschool children

PASS: A Phonological Awareness Intervention Program for At-Risk Preschool Children

Froma P. Roth, Ph.D.

Colleen K. Worthington, M.S.

University of Maryland

Gary A. Troia, Ph.D.

Michigan State University

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

key concepts
Key Concepts
  • Phonological awareness (PA) refers to a group of oral language skills that reflect explicit awareness of the sound structure of spoken language and the ability to manipulate that structure.
  • Includes rhyming, alliteration, blending, counting, isolation, segmenting, deletion, substitution, and reversal of speech sounds, though the 3 major areas are rhyming, blending, and segmenting.
  • Typically developing (TD) children between the ages of 3 and 4 are capable of rhyming and alliteration
  • TD children between 4 and 6 years of age can count, isolate, blend, and segment speech sounds; older children can delete, and manipulate them.

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

slide3
Children who perform well on such PA tasks usually are (or become) good readers, whereas children who perform poorly on them struggle (or will struggle) with word recognition and spelling.
  • PA performance in K is the best predictor of reading and spelling achievement in first and second grade.
  • Phonemic awareness (pa), the knowledge that words are comprised of individual sounds and the ability to manipulate these sounds, is most directly related to literacy.
  • Children who are phonemically aware can grasp the alphabetic principle, the concept that letters more or less correspond to sounds in spoken words
  • Children’s early reading and spelling experiences further develop their phonemic awareness skills.

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

slide4
■About 20% of children do not acquire PA without explicit instruction, especially those:
  • With disabilities
  • From low income households
  • From homes in which English is not a native language,

■Explicit instruction in PA and pa is often beneficial for children with and without disabilities to promote their meta-phonological competence, grapho-phonemic knowledge, decoding ability, and spelling proficiency.

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

examples early childhood experiences that foster phonological awareness
Examples: Early Childhood Experiences That Foster Phonological Awareness
  • Reciting fingerplays and nursery rhymes
  • Singing songs and chants with rhyming or alliterative schemes
  • Joint book reading with older children and adults
  • Viewing educational television programming such as Shining Time Station and Between the Lions
  • Exposure to environmental print (e.g., street signs, restaurant logos)
  • Interaction with various forms of print (e.g., menus, recipes, shopping lists, phone books, viewing guides)

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

key principles of instruction
Key Principles of Instruction

Task Dimensions to Control

  • Explicitness of awareness
  • Size of phonological unit (i.e., word, syllable, intrasyllabic, phoneme)
  • Number of units
  • Position of unit
  • Phoneme characteristics
  • Word frequency/familiarity

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

slide7
Types of Instructional Tasks
  • Matching
  • Elimination/Oddity
  • Judgment
  • Isolation
  • Simple production (task requires a response with a shared segment or task requires a complete segmentation or blending of units)
  • Counting
  • Compound production (two-step tasks involving deletion, substitution, or reversal)

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

slide8
Instructional Tips
  • Make sounds more perceptually salient through exaggerated pronunciation of continuants and iteration (i.e., bouncing) of noncontinuants
  • Use manipulatives whenever possible
  • Use visual cues such as pictures or indicators of number of units whenever possible
  • Model extensively
  • Provide immediate corrective feedback

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

p romoting a wareness of s ound s pass program
Promoting Awareness of SoundS (PASS) Program

3 Independent Training Modules

  • Rhyming
  • Blending
  • Segmentation

All Lessons = 30 Minutes and Have Same Structure

  • Opening Activity (5 minutes)
  • Explicit instruction (20 minutes)
  • Closing Activity (5 minutes)
  • All lessons are metascripted (loose scripts)

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

4 types of pass lessons
4 Types of PASS Lessons
  • Preskill
  • Regular
  • Alternate
  • Branching

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

characteristics of pass instruction
Characteristics of PASS Instruction
  • Sequentially ordered discrete learning objectives
  • Guided practice opportunities
  • Ongoing progress monitoring (probes)
  • Criterion-based (suggested 80% accuracy 2 lessons)

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

pass stimulus characteristics
PASS Stimulus Characteristics
  • High frequency words (20 per lesson) are used for the explicit instruction portion of each lesson
  • Balanced for phonetic diversity (a stimulus set is used for only one objective in any given module)

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

pass scaffolding procedures
PASS Scaffolding Procedures
  • Picture stimuli named by or for child(ren)
  • Extensive modeling of task demands
  • Exaggerated articulation of key sound properties and iteration
  • Visual cues and manipulatives
  • Immediate feedback and error correction

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

research on pass
Research on PASS
  • In clinical setting
  • In school setting
  • With children with SLI
  • With at-risk preschool children
  • With ELL children (in progress)
  • 1 - on -1 instruction
  • Small group instruction in RTI model (Tier 2 support)

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

research on pass15
Research on PASS

Study 1: Rhyming Module

(Roth, Troia, Worthington, & Dow, 2002)

  • 8 preschoolers with S and/or L impairment
  • Single-case experimental design to evaluate effects
    • Establish stable (in level and trend) pre-treatment baseline performance using multiple probes of rhyming, blending, and segmentation
    • Implement treatment phase and monitor progress
    • Determine post-treatment performance gains using multiple probes of rhyming, blending, and segmentation
  • Average pre-treatment baseline score range = 0-53%
  • Average post-treatment score range = 77-100%

(no overlap with pre-treatment scores)

  • No notable gains in blending and segmentation (which means rhyming gains were due to treatment and not general maturation or other factors)

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

study 2 blending
STUDY 2: BLENDING
  • 11 preschoolers with S and/or L impairment
  • All had previously participated in PASSrhyming module
  • Single-case experimental design to evaluate effects
  • Average pre-treatment baseline score = 3% correct
  • Average post-treatment score = 52% correct (ES = 2.87)
  • # phonemes preserved: (1 or more phonemes)
  • Proportion of pretest probe = 32%
  • Proportion of posttest probe = 89%
  • Post hoc analyses: word frequency and lexical neighborhood density affected performance
    • Children correctly blended more HF words than LF words; but
    • They correctly blended more words from LD neighborhoods than HD neighborhoods

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

study 3 rti roth et al 2009
Study 3: RTI (Roth, et al., 2009)

Rhyming Module

  • 3- & 4-year-old at risk children
  • Tier 2 (PASS) = 15-22 children
  • Pull-out services by SLP 2x/week

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

closing remarks
Closing Remarks
  • Spontaneous transfer between skills cannot be assumed
  • Phonemic awareness training must be coupled with instruction in the alphabetic principle to have the most impact on literacy (either sequentially or concurrently)
  • Phoneme preservation scoring appears to be more sensitive to growth
  • In some cases, up to 30% of children in treatment samples who receive intensive instruction in phonological awareness do not make substantial gains

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

contact information
Contact Information

Froma Roth

[email protected]

Colleen Worthington

[email protected]

Gary Troia

[email protected]

Roth, Worthington & Troia ASHA Convention 2009

ad