Unit Six
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Unit Six Section A. As His Name Is. So Is He!. Schedule. Lead-in New words and expressions Text After-reading Activities Writing Fun Time. Lead-in. Watch and Discuss Listen and Talk Background Information. Lead-in. Watch the Video and Answer the Questions.

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Unit Six Section A

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Unit six section a

Unit Six

Section A

As His Name Is

So Is He!


Unit six section a

Schedule

  • Lead-in

  • New words and expressions

  • Text

  • After-reading Activities

  • Writing

  • Fun Time


Unit six section a

Lead-in

Watch and Discuss

Listen and Talk

Background Information


Unit six section a

Lead-in

Watch the Video and Answer the Questions

  • How to address your family members, close friends and other people?

  • Why does a person need a name?


Unit six section a

Lead-in

Listen to the Tape and Answer the Questions

  • What are some of the ways names can make a difference?

  • 2. In what way can teachers be guilty of name prejudice?

  • 3. What does the writer suggest you do if your name does not suit you?

Tom

Rose

Jack

Sue

May

Roy


Unit six section a

Key

  • 1. The author describes five ways.

  • 2. One classroom study showed teachers gave

  • lower grades to essays written by boys with

  • certain names than to the very same essays

  • with only the names changed.

  • 3. The writer suggests if your name doesn’t suit you, you can change your name.


Unit six section a

Background Information

Origin of Chinese Surname

A Chinese surname, family name (Chinese: 姓) or clan name (氏), is one of the hundreds or thousands of family names that have been historically used by Han Chinese and Simonized Chinese ethnic groups in mainland China, Taiwan, and among overseas Chinese communities. The colloquial expressions lao bai xing (老百姓; "old hundred surnames"), or bǎi xìng (百姓, "hundred surnames") are used in Chinese to mean "ordinary people", "the people," or "commoners." (百家姓 bǎi jiā xìng) is also used to call the list of one hundred most common surnames.


Unit six section a

Prior to the Qin Dynasty (3rd century BC) China was largely a feudal society. As fiefdoms were divided and subdivided among descendants, so additional sub-surnames known as shi were created to distinguish between different seniority of lineages among the nobles though in theory they shared the same ancestor. In this way, a nobleman would hold a shi and a xing. After the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames gradually devolved to the lower classes and the difference between xing and shi blurred.


Unit six section a

Prior to the Warring States Period (5th century BC), only the royal family and the aristocratic elite could generally take surnames. Historically there was also difference between xing and shi. Xing were surnames held by the immediate royal family. They generally are composed of a nü (女, meaning "female") radical which suggests that they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. An other hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou. The "female" radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sonograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe. This combination seems to designate specifically a female and could mean "lady of such or such clan". The structure of the xing sonogram could reflect the fact that in the royal court of Zhou, at least in the beginning, only females (wives married into the Zhou family from other clans) were called by their birth clan name, while the men were usually designated by their title or fief.


Unit six section a

Background Information

Idioms of Name

Read the following sentences.

What are the Chinese meanings for them?

1. They call each other

all sorts of names.

2. He was a chairman

only in name.

他们用各种恶言恶语互骂。

他是个名义上的主席。


Unit six section a

Background Information

Idioms of Name

3. His name is mud.

他声名狼藉。

4. Thomas Edison was a great

name in science.

托玛斯·爱迪生是个科学伟人。

5. In fishing, patience is

the name of the game.

6. He doesn’t have a penny

to his name.

钓鱼时,耐心是最重要的。

他一文不名。


Unit six section a

Background Information

English Name

Full Name

Given Name

Middle Name

Surname

(Family Name)

Want a good name?

Visit:

  • www.kabalarians.com/index.htm

  • www.behindthename.com


Unit six section a

New Words and Expressions

New Words

Useful Expressions

Practice


Unit six section a

New Words

substitute v.

  • vt. put (sth./ sb. ) in place of another

2) vi. act or serve as a replacement

To Remember:sub (in place of ,取代) + stitute (to cause to stand) 取代,替代

FOR EXAMPLE:

They were substituting violence for dialogue.

他们正以暴力取代对话。

Honey can substitute for sugar in this recipe.

在此烹饪法中可以用蜂蜜取代糖。

c.f. substitute n.

A person or thing that places, acts for or serves as sb. or sth. else

The teacher is ill, so a substitute is teaching today.

老师病了,因此今天由代课教师教课。


Confidence

confidence

  • TO remember:

    confidence →con(=fully) +fid (trust)→ 完全相信→信赖,信任

1) belief in one’s own or another’s ability.

John lacks confidence in himself.

He answered the questions with confidence.

2) faith; full trust

Don’t put too much confidence in what the paper says.

Don’t break my confidence.


Characteristic

a. representative; representing a person’s thing’s usual character

characteristic

n. a special and easily recognized quality of sb. or sth.

FOR EXAMPLE:

Rainy days are characteristic of June.

六月的特点是雨天多。

Such honesty is characteristic of him.

这种诚实是他的特殊作风。

Genes determine the characteristic of every living thing.

基因决定了每种生物的特征。


Prominent

prominent

To remember:

pro

+

min

+

nent

forward

jut

adj.

FOR EXAMPLE:

a. important and usu. widely known

people prominent in science 科学界的知名人士

The government should be playing a more prominent role in improving public traffic.

政府应在改善公共交通方面起更重要的作用。

standing or extending far out (beyond a surface)

她的鼻子太高了。

Her nose is too prominent.


Refine vt

1)make (sb. or sth.) more elegant

2)make pure or improve esp. by removing unwanted material

refine vt.

To Remember:

re (again) + fine (优美,精美,精致) 使…更优美精致  使完美;精制;提炼

FOR EXAMPLE:

refine one’s language

使某人的语言更为文雅

refining processes

精炼过程

a refined way of speaking

优雅的谈吐

高尚的情趣

refined tastes

Delia has been refined. You can’t imagine how elegant she is now.

德丽娅现在变文雅了。你想像不到她现在多优雅。


Acquaintance n

1. person whom one knows but who is not a close friend

acquaintance n.

2. (often slight) knowledge of sb./sth.

FOR EXAMPLE:

No one in their entire acquaintance would wear such a dress.

在他们的熟人圈子里,没人会穿这种衣服。

I have an / some acquaintance with the language.

我略懂这门语言。

I’m so pleased to make your acquaintance, Mr. Smith.

史密斯先生,能够认识您我感到很高兴。


Confess v

confess v.

confess

fess: speak

profess

profession

FOR EXAMPLE:

1) admit often unwillingly

The man in the corner confessed to having told a lie to the manager of the company.

2) admit that one has done sth. wrong, esp. when what one has done is unknown

She confessed to her husband that she had sold her wedding ring.


Unit six section a

Useful Expressions

blind date:

arrangement to meet (each other) made between a man and a woman who have not met each other before

FOR EXAMPLE:

Janet has arranged for me to go on a blind date this Saturday with a man that she knows through work.

本周六珍妮特安排我与一位她在工作中认识的男子见面。

He met his wife in a blind date.

他和妻子是经人介绍认识的。


Unit six section a

Press for

demand with force

FOR EXAMPLE:

The chairman is pressing for improved working conditions.

主席正在要求改善工作条件。

Now you try:

许多家长一直迫切要求重新开办当地那所学校。

Many parents have been pressing for the local school to be reopened.


Unit six section a

ill at ease: uncomfortable; anxious, or worried

FOR EXAMPLE:

He appeared ill at ease at the party.

他在宴会上显得很拘谨。

She was ill at ease when she was criticized by her mother.

母亲批评她时,她觉得非常困窘。


Unit six section a

对······感到舒服

认真/严肃地对待

增加对 ······ 的信心

从古至今

是对······的真实写照

把······加在某人身上

在······方面做得好

be descriptive of…

perform well on ...

feel comfortable with

project ... on sb.

take sth./sb. seriously

throughout history

add self-confidence to

Practice


Unit six section a

Text

Main idea and structure

Language Points

Summary of the whole text


Unit six section a

Text Analysis – Main Idea and Structure

(Paras. 1-3)

The importance of one’s names in life

(Paras. 4-7)

Positive and negative effects of one’s names

(Para. 8)

The necessity of changing one’s names

Following the logical line, the author finally brings the article to a conclusion with the suggestion -- if you don’t feel like your name, you may get a better substitute for it -- thus corresponding to the situation at the beginning of the text.

Based on the narration of several anecdotes (轶事)concerning names, the author exemplifies the positive and negative effects caused by names as social symbols in daily communication: ranging from making friends to evaluating academic performance.

By citing the story of a woman’s experience with her names, the author naturally introduces the topic — the importance of names in life: A good choice of names surely helps one succeed if only by adding a bit of self-confidence to one’s talents.


Unit six section a

Text Analysis – Analysis of Each Part

Main idea?

Main idea?

Main idea?

Part I

If you find your name doesn’t fit you, the smartest thing for you to do is to get a better substitute for it.

Part I

Names really help shape favorable images and promote interpersonal relationship. However, names also cause prejudices both in people’s characters and in class-work evaluation.

Part I

(Paras. 1-3)

A woman known as Debbie changed her name and consequently won success, thus suggesting that names affect one’s life.

Part II

Part II

(Paras. 4-7)

Part II

Devices for developing it?

Devices for developing it?

Devices for developing it?

Part III

(Para. 8)

Suggestion-advancing (建议法)

Part III

Part III

Citation (引证法)

Contrast (对比法)

Language Points

Language Points

Language Points


Unit six section a

Part I

Citation: Starting an argumentation

with an example, which is a very effective

and vivid way to introduce the topic

to be discussed in the passage:

Example (Para.1-2):

Debbie’s original name didn’t suit

her good looks and elegant manner.

After changing her name into Lynne,

she won professional success.

Topic (Para.3):

Our life is more or less

relation to our name


Language points

1. Typical patterns for emphasizing sth.:

句型提炼

原句: Naturally,the name change didn’t cause Debbie / Lynne’s professional achievement—but it surely helped if only byadding a bit of self-confidence to her talents. (L. 10)

Naturally, sb. / sth. does not cause / lead to / result in… — but sb. / sth. surely helps if only by doing….

当然,某一结果并不是由某人或某物带来的,但这肯定给某人带来好处/坏处,虽说仅仅是······

当然,戴比(或林恩)的职业成就并不是改名带来的,但是这肯定给她带来了好处,虽说改名字仅使她对自己的才能增加了一点自信。

Language Points


Translation

应用:a.当然,仅有乐观态度还不能确保你生活幸福,但它的确会给你带来好处,虽说仅仅是改变了你对生活的态度。

应用:b.当然,一事无成的后果并不是漫不经心所致, 但它的确会给你带来坏处,虽说仅仅是对你的表现产生了一点点影响。

Naturally, carelessness does not lead to your failure in everything — but it surely has negative effects if only by leaving a bit of its mark on your behavior.

Naturally, optimism alone does not ensure you a happy life—but it surely helps if only by changing your attitude toward life.

Translation


Unit six section a

Part II

Making contrast (对比法) is a typical method of paragraph development adopted in this passage so as to clarify the main points.

Effects of Names

  • Negative effects of names

  • People often confuse names with some characters. (Para. 6)

  • Prejudices against names also affect classroom achievement. (Para. 7)

  • Positive effects of names

  • Names are related to specific images. (Para. 4)

  • Names with positive sense encourage new acquaintances. (Para. 5)


Unit six section a

Part II

The main idea:People’s names are related to their achievement or behavior.

Point A:affect classroom achievement

Comparison:grades on the same essays written by boys with good names and bad names;

Result: lower

Point B:other sources of classroom difference

Comparison:1)performance of girls with appealing names and less appealing names; 2) popularity of the girls is related to their names;

Result: better

Paragraph 7


Language points1

2. Typical patterns for adding sth. unfavorable:

句型提炼

原句: Yet , despitethis disadvantage, I did manage tobecome an art critic for a time.Even so,one prominent magazine consistently refused toprint “Joe” in my by-line,using my first initials, J.S., instead. (L. 27)

Despite… / For all…, sb. did manage to do sth.. Even so, sb. else refuses to…, doing sth. else instead.

尽管······,某人设法做了某事。即使如此,他人仍拒绝······,而是······

然而,尽管有此不利,我确实曾一度设法成为了一名评论家。即使如此,一家著名的杂志一直拒绝把“乔”作为我的文章的作者署名,而是用我名字的首字母J.S来代替它。

Language Points


Language points2

应用:b. 尽管困难重重,中国设法改善了人民生活条件,确保了人民的合法权益。即使如此,一些西方国家打着人权的旗号,拒绝投我国人权现状的赞成票,而是横加指责。

应用:a. 尽管薪金低,工作条件差,他还是圆满地完成了任务。即使如此,老板也没有提拔他,而是不公正地对待他。

For all various difficulties, China has managed to improve people’s living conditions and guarantee their legal rights. Even so, some western countries, under the cover of human rights, refuse to vote for the status of our civil rights, making unfounded charges instead.

Despite the low salary and bad working conditions, he did manage to finish his task perfectly. Even so, the boss refuses to get him promoted, treating him unfairly instead.

Language Points


Language points3

3. Typical patterns for providing evidence:

句型提炼

原句: A recent survey showed that American men thoughtSusan to be the most attractive female name,while women believedRichard and David were the most attractive for men. (L. 32)

A recent (latest ) survey (study / investigation / poll) (conducted / done / taken by…) shows (reveals / indicates / finds) that sb. thinks…, while sb. else believes…

最新调查表明:某人认为······ ,而其他人则认为······

最新调查表明:美国男人认为苏珊是最有吸引力的女性名字,而女性则认为查里德和戴维是男人中最有吸引力的名字。

Language Points


Language points4

应用:b. 社会学家做的一项调查表明:多数年轻人认为他们信守传统观念,而另有一些人认为为了家庭和孩子牺牲个人的幸福不值得。

应用:a. 最近对大学毕业生做的一次调查表明:为数不少的人认为高薪水非常重要,而大多数人则认为找一个有意义的工作,做些有趣的事更重要。

A poll conducted by sociologists indicates that most young people think they remain true to the traditional values, while some others regard it as of little worth to sacrifice personal happiness for the sake of the family and children.

A latest survey conducted among college graduates shows that quite a few people think a high salary is of great importance, while most of them believe doing something worthwhile and enjoyable at work is more important.

Language Points


Unit six section a

Part III

Concluding a passage through making suggestion as to the problems in question is a commonly-used method of ending .

In this passage, based on the analysis made in the previous part, the author naturally comes to his conclusion by putting forward some suggestion about the problems many people face with: if you don’t feel like your name, change it.


Unit six section a

Summary of the Passage

Summarize the passage using the tips below.

1. make a difference

2. lead to success

3. suggest qualities

4. specific images

5. a positive sense

6. name stereotyping

7. prejudices against

8. affect one’s evaluation


Unit six section a

After-reading Activity

Idea Sharing

Checking yourself


Questions for discussion

Questions for Discussion

Explain your name to the class and tell them whether you are satisfied with your name or not, and why.

Have you ever thought about changing your name into a more attractive one?

Why?

Why not?


Translate the following chinese

Translate the Following Chinese “名”

1)名不虚传

2)名不副实

3)名垂青史

4)名列前茅

5)名落孙山

6) 名正言顺

7) 顾名思义


Unit six section a

Keys

1) deserve the reputation one enjoys;one’s reputation is justified; be worth one’s name; be true to one’s name

2) be unworthy of one’s name

3) make history; go down in history; be crowned with eternal glory; leave a name in history

4) come out top; to be among the best of candidates; be on the top of the list

5) be flunked; fail to be admitted/enrolled

6) be legitimate; be perfectly justifiable

7) as the name implies/suggests


Unit six section a

Writing

Personal Letter

Model

Task


Unit six section a

I. Personal Letter

A personal letter usually has six parts: the heading, the date, the salutation, the body, the complimentary close and the signature. In most informal personal letters, the heading may be

omitted.


Unit six section a

I. Personal Letter

Personal letters are used for social interactions. They are written for

family concerns,

thanks, congratulations, invitations, consolations, favors, condolences, apologies and so on.


Unit six section a

Harbin Engineering University

Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001

China

6 Sept., 2006

heading

date

Dear Sir,

Body of Letter

Yours sincerely,

Wan Lin

signature

Model

salutation

complimentary close


Unit six section a

A Sample

Dear Mum and Dad,

It is difficult to believe but I have already been here for over four months! During the first few weeks I often found myself thinking of home and family. I guess you could say that I had a serious case of “homesickness”. The longer I am here, however, the more I am enjoying my

life and studies on the campus.


Unit six section a

A Sample

Even though I am very happy here, I still think of each of you often and appreciate so much that you have been doing for me. How are you at home? I hope you are both keeping well. See that Dad smokes less so

that he can enjoy better health.

I feel very excited at the thought that in another week I shall be with you again on holiday. I can’t say how much I want to

see you again.

Your grateful son,

Rich


Unit six section a

Your Task

Write a letter to your family or friend,

or pen friend, telling them about your

life and studies at college.


Unit six section a

Fun Time

A Song

A Flash

Beautiful Soul


Unit six section a

Enjoy the song and

tell which is more important when

you choose a partner,

appearance or soul.


Unit six section a

I don t want another pretty face

I don t want just anyone to hold

I don t want my love to go to waste

I want you and your beautiful soul

You re the one I wanna chase

You re the one I wanna hold

I wont let another minute go to waste

I want you and your beautiful soul

I know that you are something special

To you I d be always faithful

I want to be what you always needed

Then I hope you ll see the heart in me


Unit six section a

I don t want another pretty face

I don t want just anyone to hold

I don t want my love to go to waste

I want you and your beautiful soul

You re the one I wanna chase

You re the one I wanna hold

I wont let another minute go to waste

I want you and your beautiful soul

Your beautiful soul, yeah

You might need time to think it over

But im just fine moving forward

I ll ease your mind

If you give me the chance

I will never make you cry c`mon lets try


Unit six section a

I don t want another pretty face

I don t want just anyone to hold

I don t want my love to go to waste

I want you and your beautiful soul

You re the one I wanna chase

You re the one I wanna hold

I wont let another minute go to waste

I want you and your beautiful soul

Am I crazy for wanting you

Baby do you think you could want me too

I don t wanna waste your time

Do you see things the way I do

I just wanna know if you feel it too

There is nothing left to hide


Unit six section a

I don t want another pretty face

I don t want just anyone to hold

I don t want my love to go to waste

I want you and your beautiful soul

You re the one I wanna chase

You re the one I wanna hold

I wont let another minute go to waste

I want you and your beautiful soul


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