Diabetes
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Diabetes. Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which high blood glucose levels result from defective insulin secretion, insulin action or both. There are 3 types of diabetes; all of these types involve the body’s insulin supply not effectively metabolising blood glucose levels

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Diabetes

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Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which high blood glucose levels result from defective insulin secretion, insulin action or both


Diabetes

  • There are 3 types of diabetes; all of these types involve the body’s insulin supply not effectively metabolising blood glucoselevels

  • High blood sugar levels can cause damage to organs – the kidneys and eyes are common


Types

Types

  • Type 1 diabetes

  • Type 2 diabetes

  • Gestational diabetes

  • “Diabetes” refers to all types


Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes (mellitus)

  • Accounts for 10-15% of all people with diabetes (0.2-0.3% of Australians)

  • Commonly referred to as “insulin dependant”

  • There is no cure

  • Most new cases occur in those under 15 years of age


Type 2

Type 2

  • Accounts for 85-90% of all people with diabetes (7% of Australians aged 25+)

  • Caused by a decrease in insulin production and/or the body’s inability of use

  • Associated with being overweight

  • Usually managed with a healthy diet, weight control and exercise

  • The number of cases under people aged under 45 years is increasing


Gestational diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

  • Occurs during pregnancy in some women due to hormonal changes that block the actoin of the mother’s insulin

  • Usually goes away after birth

  • Carries health risks for the infant

  • The mother is more prone to developing diabetes later on in life


Why was diabetes made a nhpa

Why was Diabetes made a NHPA?

  • The impact it has on the community and the potential for improved health outcomes

  • Contributes significantly to ill health, disability and premature death

  • Increased risk of complications – kidney disease, coronary heart disease and other causes of mortality & morbidity

  • 5th leading underlying cause of death for males, 7th for females

  • 5th most frequent problem GP’s managed in 2005-6

  • 901 new cases diagnosed in children in 2005


Costs

Costs

  • Indirect costs include unpaid care, reduced or lost productivity and absenteeism

  • Direct costs include GP time, tests, specialists, emergency attendance, hospital services, ambulance

  • Intangible costs to the individual may include the embarrassment of not being able to indulge as others do, repeatedly injecting themselves, self pity, loss of time/quality of life, stress, anxiety etc


Risk factors

Risk factors

  • Biological – genetics, age, body weight

  • Behavioural – lack of physical activity, diet

  • Little is known about type 1 diabetes other than it is triggered by environmental factors that cause the immune system to stop producing insulin in genetically predisposed people


Health promotion strategies

Health promotion strategies

  • The National Diabetes Action Program (NDAP) is Diabetes Australia’s national awareness and prevention initiative

  • https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/About-Diabetes-Australia/What-Diabetes-Australia-Does/Raising-Awareness/

  • They raise community awareness


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