Chapter 5 Scandinavia

Chapter 5 Scandinavia PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Scandinavia. Why Study Scandinavian Politics?The past as prologuePolitical InstitutionsPolitical Actors and PolicymakingThe Scandinavian ModelCurrent Challenges. Why study Scandinavian politics?. Scandinavia as a social laboratory for the Western world" (Galenson, 1949)Scandinavian model"

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Chapter 5 Scandinavia

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1. Chapter 5 Scandinavia Eric S. Einhorn and John Logue

2. Scandinavia Why Study Scandinavian Politics? The past as prologue Political Institutions Political Actors and Policymaking The Scandinavian Model Current Challenges

3. Why study Scandinavian politics? Scandinavia as a “social laboratory for the Western world” (Galenson, 1949) “Scandinavian model” – consensual and solidaristic capitalism Recent challenges to the Scandinavian model: Rise in female participation in labour market Competing in a global economy Cope with rising life expectancy Balance fiscal rectitude with continued welfarism

4. The past as prologue Scandinavia today: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden Åland Islands in Finland, Faeroe Islands and Greenland in Denmark Union of Kalmar (1397–1523) Eventually split into Denmark-Norway-Iceland and Sweden-Finland 1808 – Russia captures Finland 1814 – Norway transfers to Sweden First quarter of the 20th Century: each country gained independence (Iceland autonomy, independence in 1944) created a parliamentary system based on universal suffrage

5. Political institutions All (except Finland) pure parliamentary systems Finland also has president Proportional representation Multiparty systems Coalition and/or minority governments

6. Political actors and policymaking: parties Parties are key to Scandinavian politics 5-party system – Conservatives, Agrarians, Social Democrats, radical socialists Social Democrats dominant Changes since 1970s: Rise of populist right Party fragmentation Voter dealignment

7. Political actors and policymaking: Interest groups (Mainly economic) interest groups are also key to Scandinavian politics Farm co-ops Trade unions Employers’ organisations Close ties to ‘their’ parties High membership density

8. Scandinavian policymaking ‘model’ Consensual policymaking style Broad coalitions/large parliamentary majorities Widespread consultation Gradualism

9. The Scandinavian ‘model’ Political consensus Managed market economy High level of union membership Active labour market policy Centrally-coordinated labour market Tend towards wage equality Low unemployment Income security Welfare state Fiscal problems since 1970s

10. Current challenges Political: Presence of populist right New policy debates – environment, gender, Europe Economic: Balancing social inclusion with competitiveness Social: Immigration Ageing society International Globalisation European integration

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