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2010 International Symposium. The effects of captions on deaf students’contents comprehension, cognitive load and motivation in online contents. 21 June 2010. Joong-O Yoon ( [email protected] )

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2010 International Symposium

The effects of captions on

deaf students’contents comprehension,

cognitive load and motivation in online contents

21 June 2010

Joong-O Yoon ([email protected])

Heaeun Choi ([email protected])

Korea Employment Agency for the Disabled

Table of Contents

Ⅰ Introduction

1. Background of the study

2. Research questions

Ⅱ Methods

1. Subjects

2. Experiment Design

3. Test materials

4. Measurements

5. Data analysis

Ⅲ Results

Ⅳ Conclusions and Discussion

V Recommendations

2. Purpose of Study

To examine the effects of captions when it is provided along with

Sign language video clips in multimedia learning

Cognitive load?




Online material with both captions and sign language video clips

is effective for deaf students whose first language is sign language

and literacy skills are limited?

2. Research questions

Having more visual tools in multimedia learning

aids affects learners’ cognitive load negatively

When captions are incorporated into presentation,

the amount of verbal information is greater and

leads to improved content comprehension

Having more visual tools in multimedia learning

materials raises learners’ motivation in learning

Do online learning contents with Sign language video clips

and captions result in increase of content comprehension

/ cognitive load

/ motivation

compared to learning contents only provides Sign language clips?

2. Research Hypothesis

There will be a rise in content comprehension, cognitive load, and motivation when both captions and sign language video clips are provided at the same time in multimedia learning materials.

- The experimental group(Sign language clips+Captions) will show a high score than the control group(exposed only to Sign language clips) in content comprehension, cognitive load, and motivation


1. Subjects

  • 62 deaf people

  • - Age : 18 -35(Avg. 25)

  • Gender : 40 male, 22 female

  • Schooling : 58 high school graduates, 4 college graduates



2. Research design



Content Comprehension





not using

Cognitive load


Posttest-only control group design

3. Experimental Design

Randomly assignment process

for all deaf participants

Divide into two groups

Dependent : Content Comprehension, Cognitive load, Motivation

As for the experimentThe subjects were

4. Test Materials (Online contents)

- Subject Content : Investment techniques

Sign language

( Displayed all the time )


(On / Off)

4. Measurements

  • Learning Load Measurement Survey

  • (Ryu, 2009)

  • Individual in-depth interview(24 people)

5 sub-sections : Physical effort, mental effort, difficulty of perceived

assignment, self-evaluation, and availability

4 sub-sections : Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction

To see the effects of the closed captions, 4 measurement tools were used

5. Data Analysis

Computation on average and standard deviation of content comprehension, cognitive load, and motivation had been conducted.

The difference between the two groups was analyzed using t-test and MANOVA at the .05 significance level.

. Results

1. Contents Comprehension



Notable statistical difference (t=-2.16, p<.05) between two groups

Recorded .565(>.5) in effect size,

2. Effects on Cognitive load

No significant difference between two groups

3. Effects on Motivation

No significant difference between two groups

4. In-depth Interview

“Some word to hard

to understand

in the captions

but it helped”

“The pace of the program

was too fast”




“ I looked at the captions

only when I had to”

. Conclusions

& Discussion

1. Conclusions and Discussion

  • Exposure to both captions and sign language video clips resulted in the transmission of a greater amount of information in online learning

  • Subjects used the captions to complement their understanding of the contents along with sign-language video clips.

  • Relative effectiveness of interpreted and captioned formats may differ depending on the literacy skills and sign language skills of deaf learner

Content Comprehension

Statistically significant



2. Conclusions and Discussion

  • Contrasted to Modality effect &

  • Redundancy effect

  • Due to deaf people’s different learning style

  • Due to lower readability level of the material itself that raised their intrinsic cognitive load might have affected their later cognitive load.

  • Quality of captions ( readability, placement, spacing, presentation rate, sound effects)

Cognitive load

  • No significant

  • difference


Such outcome seems to be a result from

3. Conclusions and Discussion


  • Presence of captions did not affect

  • motivation of deaf learners

  • Constant barrage of

  • contents and difficult vocabulary

  • might have led the deaf to quickly lose interest.

  • Instructional design of the contents

  • might have failed to meet the unique

  • needs of deaf learners in terms of

  • motivation and learning interests

  • No significant

  • difference


This can be seen as

V. Recommendations

  • Captions should be provided along with sign-language video clips to meet

  • the unique needs of Deaf learners

  • The type and quality of captions should be taken into consideration in terms of literacy levels of the learners. Poorly captioned materials will not provide equal access to information and captioning should occur during the production stage

2. Using Video Typography for motivation

  • Video Typography when presenting animation or video clips for the Deaf

  • as it switches reading information into visual information

  • Increasing emotional understanding of an image by describing emotions,

  • movement, facial expression, and other emotional and linguistic sense

  • with written letters. (Kwon & Huh, 2009)

Based on these results, I would like to make 3 suggestions for further research

3. Tailor-made instructional design for the Deaf

  • A systematic approach based on instructional technology should be considered to be responsive to deaf learners needs in the process of developing learning materials.

  • Developing tailor-made instructional design, evaluation of the application, and further research should be emphasized to optimize their learning.

Lastly, I would like to suggest