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Sustainable Energy Development in Kazakhstan: Alternatives and Renewables. Alex Ignatiev Alternative Energy Research Institute and Center for Advanced Materials University of Houston Houston, TX USA. What is Sustainable Development?.

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Sustainable Energy Development in Kazakhstan: Alternatives and Renewables

Alex Ignatiev

Alternative Energy Research Institute


Center for Advanced Materials

University of Houston

Houston, TX USA


What is Sustainable Development?

Development that meets the needs of the presentwithout compromising the ability of future generationsto meet their own needs.


Sustainable Energy Development Has Three Dimensions



Social / Equity

The Green Economy……


Sustainability - The Green Economy

Economic Dimension

  • An economically sustainable Energy System must be able to produce energyon a continuing basis, cost effectively, and in support of a growth economy

Environmental Dimension

  • Must have a stable resource base - cannot overwhelm the environment. Deplete non-renewables only to the extent that there is investment in renewable substitutes.

Social Dimension

  • Achieve distributional equity - adequate provision of energyservices anywhere in the country

Doing Sustainable Energy Development requires:

  • Attempting to integrate (or perhaps just balance) environmental, social, and economic values ...

Look at Energy Usage…..

Increased Use of Electricity

Future Trend of Electricity Use


Electricity as the Future Source of Energy

  • Coal Fired Steam Turbine/Generator
  • Gas Fired Turbine/Generator
  • Oil Fired Steam Turbine/Generator
  • Most Present Electricity Generation
    • Hydrocarbon Fuels…..

Low Generation/Fuel Cost

High Ignored Cost


Clean and Sustainable Electrical Energy Generation

  • Sunlight – Solar Energy
    • Solar Cells - Sunlight-to-Electricity….
  • Hydro-Powered Turbine/Generator
  • Wind – Wind Turbine Energy
    • Wind Turbines – Wind-to-Electricity
  • Geothermal Heated Steam Turbine/Generator

Moderate to High Generation Cost

Low Ignored Cost


Ignored Costs of Electrical Energy Generation

  • global warming
  • public health
  • occupational health
  • material damage
  • Reduce Ignored Costs… Improve Sustainability
    • Reduce Fossil Fuel Use – Increased Efficiency

Increased Efficiency of Current Electrical Energy Generation

Future Fuel for Fuel Cells – Hydrogen…

  • Hydrogen from Water
    • 1 GJ per 90 liters H2O  need 3.6x1013 liters
  • There is Enough Water to Sustain a Hydrogen Economy
  • GenerateElectrical Energy More Efficiently from Fuels
  • Hydrogen from Water - Electrolysis
  • Use Solid Oxide Fuel Cell … 55-60% Efficiency
    • Solid Oxide Fuel Cell – Methane, Diesel, Alcohol..
  • Currently: Heat-Steam-Turbine-Generator
    • 33-35% Efficiency
  • Institute for Physics & Technology – Almaty

Increased Efficiency Solar Cells

Crystalline Silicon - Amorphous Silicon Heterojunction Cell -23%

  • Multi-Junction III-VCells
  • Epitaxially Grown Cells – 42%

Cover Complete Solar Spectrum


Projected ~50 % Efficiency Under Concentration

  • Further Increase Solar Cell Efficiency

Cell -InGaNP

Eg=1.0 eV

InGaPEg=2.0 eV

InGaAsEg=1.4 eV


Eg=0.66 eV


Increased Efficiency Wind Turbines

  • High Temp Superconductivity
  • Rare Earth Oxides
  • YBa2Cu3O7-x - (93K)

HTS Direct Drive Multipole Generator…. ½ size/weight


Ultimate Sustainable Energy Source

  • New Energy Source with Environmental, Economic and Social Benefit

Municipal Solid Waste…

  • Municipal Solid Waste Currently Buried/Burned
    • Major Ecological Impact…..
    • Air and Water Pollution

Municipal Solid Waste

  • MSW Mostly Organic
    • 100 tons/day for 100,000 people
  • Convert Organic MSW to ENERGY…..
  • Plasma Processing
    • Gasify Organics
    • Immobilize Inorganics in Slag
    • No Ash or Toxins Released
  • Ecologically Ideal……

Gas Product – Syngas (H2 + CO)


Plasma Processing of MSW

  • Municipal Solid Waste To Energy
    • Ecological Benefit
    • Social Benefit
    • Economic Benefit
  • Ideal Sustainable Energy Source

Fuel Source From MSW - Syngas

  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reactions w/Syngas
    • 2H2 + O2 2H2O
    • 2CO + O2  2CO2

100 t/d → 10MW Power


Integrate Energy Sources for Sustainability

  • Solar
  • Wind
  • Geothermal
  • Fuel Cells – Hydrogen
  • Hydro
  • Energy Efficient Buildings
  • The Future: the Enernet……
    • Interconnected
    • Smart
    • Sustainable

(Bob Metcalf)


The Sustainable Energy Principle

  • Protect the environment and at the same time fulfill economic and social objectives