Grammar and its correct usage
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GRAMMAR AND ITS CORRECT USAGE. Course: English writing skills BBA-1 Instructor: Farhana Aziz. Comma splice.

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GRAMMAR AND ITS CORRECT USAGE

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Grammar and its correct usage

GRAMMAR AND ITS CORRECT USAGE

Course: English writing skills

BBA-1

Instructor: Farhana Aziz


Comma splice

Comma splice

  • A comma splice is simply a sentence in which a comma is called on to do more than is appropriate. When a sentence contains two independent clauses — each of which could essentially stand on its own — separated by a comma.

    E.g:

  • I know what to do, I just don’t know how to do it.

    Correct:

  • I know what to do but I just don’t know how to do it.ORI know what to do. I just don’t know how to do it.


Fused sentence

Fused sentence

  • When a sentence contains two independent clauses — each of which could essentially stand on its own — not separated by a comma or by nothing at all. It is also called run-on sentence.

    E.g:

  • I know what to do I just don’t know how to do it.

    Correct:

  • I know what to do however, I just don’t know how to do it.

    OR

  • I know what to do. I just don’t know how to do it.


5 strategies to fix the comma splice

5 strategies to fix the comma splice


1 turn the independent clauses into separate sentences

1.Turn the independent clauses into separate sentences.

  • Divide the sentence into two (and set “Of course” off with a comma as well):

  • E.g: “Of course not all companies will survive, it is our goal to give the investing public accurate information on all companies.”

  • “Of course, not all companies will survive. It is our goal to give the investing public accurate information on all companies.”


2 add coordinating conjuction

2. Add coordinating conjuction

  • Insert a coordinating conjunction to join the clause with the other one.

  • Use words like And, for, nor, yet, but, or, so etc to join two sentences.

    E.g:

    “At times, it resembled the pitch of a whirring blender, at other moments, an angelic choir.”

  • Correct: “At times, it resembled the pitch of a whirring blender, and at other moments, an angelic choir.”

    (The final comma and the phrase “an angelic choir” are correct;”)


3 add subordinating conjuction

3. Add subordinating conjuction

  • Insert a subordinating conjunction to convert either clause into a subordinate clause (one that depends on the other to be the main clause):

  • Use while, infact, instead, because, as soon as, since, although etc to join two sentences and make the other one subordinate.

    E.g:

  • “Some buildings hearken back to Main Street, USA, others offer strip-mall modernism.”

  • Correct: “Some buildings hearken back to Main Street, USA, while others offer strip mall modernism.” (While could, alternatively, begin the sentence.)


4 replace comma with a semicolon

4. Replace comma with a semicolon

  • Separate the independent clauses with a semicolon and add a conjunctive adverb. The semicolon will tell the reader that the ideas in the two sentences are closely connected, and the conjunctive adverb describes the connection.

    E.g:

  • He doesn’t need the map right now, he just follows the direction kim pointed out to him.

  • Correct: He doesn’t need the map right now; instead, he just follows the direction kim pointed out to him.


5 turn independent clause into a phrase

5. Turn independent clause into a phrase

  • Eliminating the subject and verb will turn the second clause into a modifying phrase. Thus closely connecting the ideas.

    E.g:

  • At high noon we were off paddling down the Potomac River, we were two to a canoe with a gear in the middle.

  • Correct: At high noon we were off paddling down the Potomac River, two to a canoe with a gear in the middle.


Strategies to fix the fused sentence

strategies to fix the fused sentence


Her mood was good i took the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions

Her mood was good I took the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions.

  • Because her mood was good, I took the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions.

  • Her mood was good, that’s why / so I took the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions.

  • Her mood was good; I took the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions.

  • Her mood was good, taking the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions.

  • Her mood was good. I took the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions.


Fragment sentences

Fragment sentences


Grammar and its correct usage

  • A fragment is either an incomplete sentence lacking a subject or predicate, or a dependentclause punctuated as a sentence.

  • Even though fragment begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, it cannot stand alone as a sentence.

    E.g:

  • Tonight its my turn. A ride-along with Sergent Rob of the Green valley police dept.

  • Tonight its my turn for aride-along with Sergent Rob of the Green Valley Police Dept.


Your turn

Your turn

Making the other clause subordinate:

  • Frank turned the cards one at a time. Each time telling me something about my future.

  • Frank turned the cards one at a time each time telling me something about my future.

    Making both clauses independent:

  • The world that I was born into demanded continuous work. Where nobody got ahead, and everyone came home tired.

  • The world that I was born into demanded continuous work. Nobody got ahead, and everyone came home tired.


Your turn1

Your turn

Add subject to the other clause to make it complete:

  • The crowd in the lounge is basically young.The teenage and early twenties generation.

  • The crowd in the lounge is basically young.The teenage and early twenties generation gathers together.

    Leave the fragment as it is to create special effect:

  • The bare utility of the clock echoes the simplicity of the office. No sign of a large hardwood desk or a pillowy leather chair or even a wall with shelves filled with imposing law books.


4 p s to understand the concept completely

4 p’s to understand the concept completely

  • PLEASE

  • PRACTICE,

  • PRACTICE &

  • PRACTICE


Grammar and its correct usage

Enough for the day.


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