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GRAMMAR AND ITS CORRECT USAGE. Course: English writing skills BBA-1 Instructor: Farhana Aziz. Comma splice.

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Grammar and its correct usage

GRAMMAR AND ITS CORRECT USAGE

Course: English writing skills

BBA-1

Instructor: Farhana Aziz


Comma splice
Comma splice

  • A comma splice is simply a sentence in which a comma is called on to do more than is appropriate. When a sentence contains two independent clauses — each of which could essentially stand on its own — separated by a comma.

    E.g:

  • I know what to do, I just don’t know how to do it.

    Correct:

  • I know what to do but I just don’t know how to do it. ORI know what to do. I just don’t know how to do it.


Fused sentence
Fused sentence

  • When a sentence contains two independent clauses — each of which could essentially stand on its own — not separated by a comma or by nothing at all. It is also called run-on sentence.

    E.g:

  • I know what to do I just don’t know how to do it.

    Correct:

  • I know what to do however, I just don’t know how to do it.

    OR

  • I know what to do. I just don’t know how to do it.


5 strategies to fix the comma splice

5 strategies to fix the comma splice


1 turn the independent clauses into separate sentences
1.Turn the independent clauses into separate sentences.

  • Divide the sentence into two (and set “Of course” off with a comma as well):

  • E.g: “Of course not all companies will survive, it is our goal to give the investing public accurate information on all companies.”

  • “Of course, not all companies will survive. It is our goal to give the investing public accurate information on all companies.”


2 add coordinating conjuction
2. Add coordinating conjuction

  • Insert a coordinating conjunction to join the clause with the other one.

  • Use words like And, for, nor, yet, but, or, so etc to join two sentences.

    E.g:

    “At times, it resembled the pitch of a whirring blender, at other moments, an angelic choir.”

  • Correct: “At times, it resembled the pitch of a whirring blender, and at other moments, an angelic choir.”

    (The final comma and the phrase “an angelic choir” are correct;”)


3 add subordinating conjuction
3. Add subordinating conjuction

  • Insert a subordinating conjunction to convert either clause into a subordinate clause (one that depends on the other to be the main clause):

  • Use while, infact, instead, because, as soon as, since, although etc to join two sentences and make the other one subordinate.

    E.g:

  • “Some buildings hearken back to Main Street, USA, others offer strip-mall modernism.”

  • Correct: “Some buildings hearken back to Main Street, USA, while others offer strip mall modernism.” (While could, alternatively, begin the sentence.)


4 replace comma with a semicolon
4. Replace comma with a semicolon

  • Separate the independent clauses with a semicolon and add a conjunctive adverb. The semicolon will tell the reader that the ideas in the two sentences are closely connected, and the conjunctive adverb describes the connection.

    E.g:

  • He doesn’t need the map right now, he just follows the direction kim pointed out to him.

  • Correct: He doesn’t need the map right now; instead, he just follows the direction kim pointed out to him.


5 turn independent clause into a phrase
5. Turn independent clause into a phrase

  • Eliminating the subject and verb will turn the second clause into a modifying phrase. Thus closely connecting the ideas.

    E.g:

  • At high noon we were off paddling down the Potomac River, we were two to a canoe with a gear in the middle.

  • Correct: At high noon we were off paddling down the Potomac River, two to a canoe with a gear in the middle.



Her mood was good i took the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions
Her mood was good I took the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions.

  • Because her mood was good, I took the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions.

  • Her mood was good, that’s why / so I took the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions.

  • Her mood was good; I took the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions.

  • Her mood was good, taking the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions.

  • Her mood was good. I took the opportunity to ask if she had a few minutes to answer some questions.


Fragment sentences

Fragment sentences few minutes to answer some questions.


  • A fragment is either an incomplete sentence lacking a few minutes to answer some questions.subject or predicate, or a dependentclause punctuated as a sentence.

  • Even though fragment begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, it cannot stand alone as a sentence.

    E.g:

  • Tonight its my turn. A ride-along with Sergent Rob of the Green valley police dept.

  • Tonight its my turn for aride-along with Sergent Rob of the Green Valley Police Dept.


Your turn
Your turn few minutes to answer some questions.

Making the other clause subordinate:

  • Frank turned the cards one at a time. Each time telling me something about my future.

  • Frank turned the cards one at a time each time telling me something about my future.

    Making both clauses independent:

  • The world that I was born into demanded continuous work. Where nobody got ahead, and everyone came home tired.

  • The world that I was born into demanded continuous work. Nobody got ahead, and everyone came home tired.


Your turn1
Your turn few minutes to answer some questions.

Add subject to the other clause to make it complete:

  • The crowd in the lounge is basically young.The teenage and early twenties generation.

  • The crowd in the lounge is basically young.The teenage and early twenties generation gathers together.

    Leave the fragment as it is to create special effect:

  • The bare utility of the clock echoes the simplicity of the office. No sign of a large hardwood desk or a pillowy leather chair or even a wall with shelves filled with imposing law books.


4 p s to understand the concept completely
4 few minutes to answer some questions.p’s to understand the concept completely

  • PLEASE

  • PRACTICE,

  • PRACTICE &

  • PRACTICE


Enough for the day. few minutes to answer some questions.


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