Experimental design
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Experimental Design. ????????????????????????????. What’s the question. Hypothesis. If-then statement If part - shows a relationship (can be cause-effect) Then part – is your prediction

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Experimental Design

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Experimental design

Experimental Design


Experimental design

????????????????????????????

  • What’s the question


Hypothesis

Hypothesis

  • If-then statement

  • If part - shows a relationship (can be cause-effect)

  • Then part – is your prediction

    • If the texture/pattern of a paper towel affects the rate at which it picks up water, then a paper towel with more indentations and therefore surface area will pick up water the fastest.


Experimental design

An experiment needs:

  • To test only one variable

  • All other variables are constant

  • Example: To test which fertilizer is the most effective, the variable is the type of fertilizer.

  • What should you keep constant?


An experiment needs

An experiment needs:

  • Control Group – Where all factors are standard or kept the same. This is what you will compare your experimental group to

  • Experimental (Variable) Group – All conditions are kept constant EXCEPT for the variable


Experiment

Experiment

A

B

D

C

What group is the control group?


An experiment needs1

An experiment needs:

  • Independent (Manipulated) Variable – The factor that you deliberately change (fertilizer)

  • Dependent (Responding) Variable – The factor that changes in response to the manipulated variable (plant growth)


Experiment1

Experiment

A

B

D

C

What group is the control group?


Experimental design

An experiment needs:

  • Data- the more trials or the larger the sample size, the more reliable your data will be.

    • Quantitative- numerical data

    • Qualitative- descriptive data

  • Your data will need to be organized so that the result is clear.


  • Data collections

    Data Collections

    Graduated Cylinder

    BeakerTest TubePipette

    Which is the most precise?


    Experimental design

    • Accuracy - the ability of a measurement to match the actual quantity being measured

      • The true value

    • Precision – the ability of a measurement to be consistently repeated


    Meniscus

    Meniscus


    An experiment needs2

    An experiment needs…

    • Conclusions- your experimental results need to be communicated to


    Experimental design

    • Hypothesis- the prediction and the thinking behind your prediction

      • For example: Fertilizer A will be the most effective in aiding plant growth because it contains the most nutrients.

    • Theory- after many hypotheses have been tested and have not been proven incorrect, the hypotheses will become a part of a theory.


    Experimental design

    • Theory-

      • How have you heard this word used in “the real world”?

      • Why is it important that we know the scientific definition?


    Experimental design

    • Law- a mathematical explanation of a repeated occurrence (gravity, etc.)


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