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contents. aims programme what do you know? MBTI approaches W T. model effectiveness skills activities. MBTI. W T. diff LS theories develop process EI SN TF JP. skills. W T. reframing empathy advanced empathy positive challenge. approaches. W T. RET TA.

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contents
contents

aims

programme

what do you know?

MBTI

approaches

W

T

model

effectiveness

skills

activities

slide2
MBTI

W

T

diff LS theories

develop process

EI

SN

TF

JP

skills
skills

W

T

reframing

empathy

advanced empathy

positive challenge

approaches
approaches

W

T

RET

TA

slide6
to develop a further understanding of the process of counselling

to further develop the skills of counselling and their application

aims
suggested programme
day 1 recap on what we know

further developing skills

applications in school

some issues in counselling

day 2 further skills: action planning

counselling concepts, styles and approaches

peer counselling; teaching counselling skills to kids; relationship to PSE

more issues and strategies

day 3 putting it all together

practice

dealing with our own problems!

suggested programme
what do you know
in groups of 4/5

discuss what each of you already knows about counselling

prepare a 5 minute presentation to teach the rest of us what you know

YOU HAVE 30 MINUTES TO PREPARE

what do you know?
slide13

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

slide14

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

slide15

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

slide16

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

slide17

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

slide18

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

slide19

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

slide20

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

slide21

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide22

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide23

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide24

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide25

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide26

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide27

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide28

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide29

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide30

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide31

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide32

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide33

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide34

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide35

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide36

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide37

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide38

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide39

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

slide40

THE IDEAL

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION

what makes counselling work44
relationshipwhat makes counselling work?

skills

  • empathy
  • unconditional positive regard
  • genuineness
  • congruence
  • listening
  • clarifying/questioning
  • positive challenge
  • goal setting
  • action planning
  • processing
what makes counselling work45
relationshipwhat makes counselling work?
  • empathy
  • unconditional positive regard
  • genuineness
  • congruence

moving towards understanding the other person from their frame of reference

and showing it

what makes counselling work46
relationshipwhat makes counselling work?
  • empathy
  • unconditional positive regard
  • genuineness
  • congruence

respect; warm and caring irrespective of what the person has said or done

what makes counselling work47
relationshipwhat makes counselling work?
  • empathy
  • unconditional positive regard
  • genuineness
  • congruence
  • real;
  • sincere;
  • honest with the other person - and with oneself
what makes counselling work48
relationshipwhat makes counselling work?
  • empathy
  • unconditional positive regard
  • genuineness
  • congruence
  • “all in one piece”
  • no discrepancies between what is said, what is done and what is felt
empathy
a process

trying to get nearer to knowing how someone feels

concerns feelings directly expressed

showing you are doing this (so that the client knows)

“You feel ………. when …………

empathy
advanced empathy
trying to understand feelings that are below the surface

Feelings that are now spoken or openly expressed

“playing your hunches”…..

…..but not playing at psychoanalyzing

advanced empathy
positive challenge
what is implied

discrepancies between what is

said and done

said and said

done and done

said and expressed non-verbally

said/done and what most other people would say/do

positive challenge
positive challenge54
self-sharing

“I felt …….. when ……..

I wonder if it’s like that for you”

positive challenge
positive challenge breaking bad news
how would you

tell someone they’ve been made redundant

speak to a P2 pupil who has been hitting people in the playground and has made someone’s noise bleed

tell a student they can’t do a chosen subject

speak to a teacher after they had slapped a student

tell a parent their son/daughter has been bullying

tell a parent their son/daughter has been caught with ecstasy and the police are on the way

positive challengebreaking bad news
positive challenge breaking bad news56
positive challengebreaking bad news

warning

breaking the bad news

being supportive

download
download the course materials from

www.aberdeen-education.org.uk/guidance/downloads

download
why are learning styles important
People who are actively engaged in the learning process will more likely achieve success.

A key to getting and keeping learners involved in the learning process is to understand learning style preferences.

why are learning styles important?
models for learning styles
Felder–Silverman Learning Model

Herrmann Brain-Dominance Model

Kolb’s Learning-Style Inventory

Honey & Mumford’s model

Barbe-Swassing model

Gregorc model of mind styles

Myers Briggs Personality Types

models for learning styles
felder silverman learning model
sensing or intuitive learners

visual or verballearners

inductive or deductive learners

active or reflective learners

sequential orglobal learners

Felder–Silverman Learning Model
herrmann brain dominance model
classifies learners in terms of their relative preferences for thinking in fourdifferent modes

left-brain cerebral (logical thinkers)

left-brain limbic (sequentialthinkers)

right-brain limbic (emotional thinkers)

right-brain cerebral (holistic thinkers).

Herrmann Brain-Dominance Model
kolb s learning style inventory
This classifies learners as having a preference for

concrete experience or abstractconceptualization

active experimentation or reflective observation.

Kolb’s Learning-Style Inventory
barbe swassing model
How we take in and learn information

Visual

learn by seeing and watching

Auditory

learn by listening to verbal instructions

Kinesthetic

learn by being physically involved

Barbe-Swassing Model
gregorc model of mind styles
Perception

how we take in information

Ordering

how we make sense of and use the information

Gregorc model of mind styles
gregorc model of mind styles75
Perception: how we take in information

Concrete

information directly from our 5 senses; hands-on approach

Abstract

information from visualization or conception; leap easily from real to symbolic world

Gregorc model of mind styles
gregorc model of mind styles76
Ordering: how we make sense of and use the information

Sequential

linear, step-by-step organization; proceed in orderly way to the end result

Random

no particular sequence; learning in “layers”; starting with the big picture

Gregorc model of mind styles
gregorc model of mind styles77
Gregorc model of mind styles

Perception

ConcreteAbstract

Ordering

SequentialRandom

the development learning process81
acquiring or taking in informationthe development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

the development learning process82
acquiring or taking in informationthe development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment

getting motivated energised
acquiring or taking in informationgetting motivated/energised

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment

getting motivated energised88
E - I

your energy source

what energises you - inner world or outer world

direction of focus - sources of energy

how you are energised

getting motivated/energised
the development learning process92
acquiring or taking in informationthe development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment

acquiring taking in information97
S - N

way of taking in information/how you prefer to take in information

perceiving preference

what you pay attention to

acquiring/taking in information
the development learning process101
acquiring or taking in informationthe development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment

using information
acquiring or taking in informationusing information

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment

the environment you prefer
acquiring or taking in informationthe environment you prefer

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment

the development learning process122
acquiring or taking in informationthe development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment

getting motivated energised123
E - I

your energy source

what energises you - inner world or outer world

direction of focus - sources of energy

how you are energised

getting motivated/energised
e s prefer
being in a group

group work; group projects; group brainstorming

talking (although they get rather fed up with too much talk from others eg teacher!)

talking before doing individual work or individual thinking

Es prefer
e s prefer125
activities which give a chance to reconsider thoughts or possible answers or solutions

relatively short, fast-moving activities/environment

trial and error problem-solving (they often succeed when the principles follow the experience, e.g. when using computers, microscopes or doing maths activities)

Es prefer
e s prefer126
learning by watching someone else do something first (modelling) (eg in science allow extraverts to try or watch an experiment before you explain it)

talking to lots of other people when wrestling with a problem

action and variety

knowing what other people expect of them

Es prefer
i s prefer
individual activities

one-to-one or small group interaction, and may find larger groups difficult

“lectures” more than extraverts

not being put on the spot by too many questions which require spontaneous answers ‑ time for preparation would be helpful here (introverts are not usually the first to raise their hands in class)

Is prefer
i s prefer129
pauses for thinking or reflection after being given a question, task or problem

someone else modelling a course of action before they attempt it

“rehearsing” before they do something eg speak in front of large group or give oral presentations

concentrating on a few tasks at a time

Is prefer
i s prefer130
taking their time to understand something before they try it

want to understand the concept before trying to solve a problem

to set their own standards

Is prefer
slide131
can often cope with (shut out) distractions

do not always express enthusiasms immediately (eg for a particular course of action)

may need reassurance that it is OK for them not to be extravert

I s
the development learning process132
acquiring or taking in informationthe development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment

acquiring taking in information133
S - N

way of taking in information/how you prefer to take in information

perceiving preference

what you pay attention to

acquiring/taking in information
s s prefer
to use eyes/ears/touch to find out what\'s happening

information and facts as well as (vague) ideas and theories (may find abstract concepts difficult or stressful)

“lectures” or programmed learning, but only if they “attract attention” (straight lectures or lots of teacher talk aren\'t usually enough)

audio-visual presentations (rather than just OHP presentations)

S s prefer
s s prefer135
solving problems through standard methods (so may have difficulty with new problems if this can\'t be done)

skills practice

work experience; community service etc

hands-on activities; practical work

case studies

tasks which involve the use of senses (eg touch) and which are definite and measurable

S s prefer
s s prefer136
using skills they\'ve already learned more than learning new skills

practical/concrete examples

having precise step-by-step directions/ideas about what they are going to do

definite measurable things

facts ‑ and distrust vague ideas

a reference (eg a chapter in a book which they can use as a study guide

S s prefer
slide137
may be patient with details but impatient when details get complicated

may find challenge difficult

sometimes find it difficult when INTUITIVE (N) teachers present material from several different perspectives (eg in social subjects)

S s
n s prefer
reading and listening activities

paying attention to meanings of facts and how they fit together

open-ended situations

using imagination to come up with possibilities and new ways of doing things

solving new problems, particularly those which don\'t have one particular solution

N s prefer
n s prefer139
not doing things over and over again - get bored with “practice” activities and lose interest

learning new skills rather than practising those already learned

challenge and open-ended, creative activities

self-paced learning

group discussions which allow imagination

N s prefer
n s prefer140
role play (particularly if the person also prefers extraversion)

having new topics introduced in such a way that it encourages them to look upon them as challenges (but if you give them too many details at first they may feel overwhelmed)

N s prefer
slide141
may be impatient with details but don\'t mind complicated situations

dislike routine

sometimes find it difficult to get down to concrete realities

N s
the development learning process142
acquiring or taking in informationthe development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment

t s prefer
deciding things logically

“lectures” if logically structured

being treated with justice and fair play

tasks/problems with right answers

praise for getting things “right”; they tend to value individual achievement

T s prefer
t s prefer145
rank-ordering (eg of courses of action)

to know where they stand in relation to others and can be devastated by failure

feedback – and quickly - on what they\'ve done

work to be marked, and feedback given – quickly

researching information and debate

to be task oriented

T s prefer
t s prefer146
programmed learning

debates

problem-solving activities involving collecting, organizing and evaluating data

activities which involve research (e.g. library research) and allow them to share results with others

T s prefer
slide147
sometimes hurt other people\'s feelings without realising it; they may pay more attention to ideas than to other people\'s feelings

don\'t necessarily need harmony, and often don\'t mind conflict so much as other people

may enjoy talking with teachers rather than peers

T s
f s prefer
to decide according to personal feelings or values

pleasing people, even in unimportant things

activities involving positive feedback

praise for the effort they\'ve put in

F s prefer
f s prefer149
taking account of other people\'s feelings more than ideas, and they sometimes ignore the logic

harmony and get upset by conflict

appreciate being known personally by the teacher

knowing they\'re liked

helping others, so may make good “peer teachers” (but remember “prefer” does not always equal “good at”)

F s prefer
f s prefer150
group discussion and group decision-making and role play particularly if person also has a preference for extraversionF s prefer
slide151
may find it difficult to challenge others, even in a small way, because they worry about dealing with the possible (conflict) response

have difficulty in accepting criticism, sarcasm, ridicule

F s
the development learning process152
acquiring or taking in informationthe development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment

j s prefer
to have a plan, & have things settled in advance

highly structured activities with clear deadlines

to have clear purposes and instructions

things to turn out the way they “ought to be”

to finish one project before they start another, so may like to try out courses of action one at a time

J s prefer
j s prefer155
to decide things fairly quickly

to be right

to live by schedules which are not easily changed

J s prefer
j s prefer156
to be told in advance of any changes in procedures or schedules (e.g. if there is to be a substitute teacher or a change in schedule such as an assembly) and make sure they know for how long

to have a course outline so that they know the topics which will be covered during a term/course/year

J s prefer
slide157
may find it difficult to cope with too many unfinished projects - implications for Standard Grade assignments here?J s
p s prefer
to be flexible & not have plans which are too fixed, so find target setting and action planning rather a problem (“Not target setting again; we’ve done that”, they might say!)

flexible tasks which can be approached in different ways

unplanned and unexpected happenings

P s prefer
p s prefer159
to start lots of projects, but have trouble finishing them all (so may like to try out lots of courses of action at once at not complete them properly)

to decide things fairly slowly

to miss nothing

to live by making changes to deal with problems as they arise

discussions which do not lead to preconceived conclusions

P s prefer
slide160
may find games helpful in learning concepts

often find sitting at a desk for long periods of time boring, and can distract others by their activity during “quiet times” if they aren\'t allowed the chance to move around at some time (remember that PERCEIVING pupils often act spontaneously!)

P s
slide161
often enjoy long discussions which do not lead to preconceived conclusions

may need help in completing assignments on time

can sometimes be helped to develop plans for their work by working backwards from deadlines

P s
slide162
BE CAREFUL…

…not to interpret their “off-task” behaviour as confrontation with the teacher ‑ they often just like having fun and enjoying life, and have a good sense of humour which can be harnessed in the classroom

P s
contact details
Terry Ashton,Adviser (Guidance and Careers)

[email protected]

Website on Guidance/pastoral care/PSE

www.aberdeen-education.org.uk/guidance

contact details
index
index

the learning process

E learning preferences

description of styles

I learning preferences

styles: being energized

S learning preferences

styles: acquiring information

N learning preferences

styles: using information

T Learning preferences

styles: your environment

F learning preferences

J learning preferences

learning

contact details

P learning preferences

rational emotive counselling ret
human beings are uniquely rational (as well as irrational!) - when they think rationally they are competent, happy and effective

emotional/psychological disturbance is the result of irrational thinking (thought and emotion are not separate)

people are biologically predisposed to irrational thinking (which leads to emotional disturbance)

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

assumptions

rational emotive counselling ret169
human beings are verbal animals and thinking usually occurs through the use of symbols or language- so when people are disturbed they perpetuate their disturbance by irrational ideas and thoughts (we are our thoughts)Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

assumptions

rational emotive counselling ret170
continuing emotional disturbance is the result of self- verbalisations and not the result of events. (PEOPLE ARE DISTURBED NOT BY THINGS BUT BY THE VIEW THEY TAKE OF THEM)Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

assumptions

rational emotive counselling ret171
negative and irrational thoughts need to be attacked by a recognition of the perceptions and thinking so that the thinking becomes logical and rational. SO THE GOAL OF THE COUNSELLOR IS TO DEMONSTRATE TO CLIENTS THAT THE SELF-VERBALISATIONS ARE ILLOGICAL AND IRRATIONALRational Emotive Counselling (RET)

assumptions

rational emotive counselling ret172
ANTECEDENT

BELIEFS

CONSEQUENCES

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

THE A-B-C THEORY

rational emotive counselling ret174
I must be loved or approved of by virtually everyone

I must be perfectly competent, adequate and achieving to be considered worthwhile

If things are not as I want them to be, it is a terrible catastrophe

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

irrational beliefs

rational emotive counselling ret175
there is always a right or perfect solution to every problem, and it must be found or the results will be catastrophic

unhappiness is caused by outside circumstances and a person has no control over it

dangerous and fearsome things are cause for great concern and their possibility must be continually dwelt upon

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

irrational beliefs

rational emotive counselling ret176
it is easier to avoid certain difficulties and self-responsibilities than to face up to them

a person should be dependent on others and should have someone stronger on whom to rely

past experiences and events are the determinants of present behaviour; the influence of the past cannot be eradicated

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

irrational beliefs

rational emotive counselling ret177
a person should be quite upset over other people’s problems and disturbances

Some people are bad, wicked or villainous and therefore should be blamed and punished

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

irrational beliefs

transactional analysis ta181
Transactional Analysis (TA)

set of feelings, thoughts attitudes and behaviours which resemble those of parental figures

P

A

C

transactional analysis ta182
Transactional Analysis (TA)

P

A

C

objective, rational, makes judgements

transactional analysis ta183
Transactional Analysis (TA)

P

A

C

set of feelings, thoughts attitudes and behaviours that are relics of an individual’s childhood eg spontaneity

ad