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contents. aims programme what do you know? MBTI approaches W T. model effectiveness skills activities. MBTI. W T. diff LS theories develop process EI SN TF JP. skills. W T. reframing empathy advanced empathy positive challenge. approaches. W T. RET TA.

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Contents l.jpg
contents

aims

programme

what do you know?

MBTI

approaches

W

T

model

effectiveness

skills

activities


Slide2 l.jpg
MBTI

W

T

diff LS theories

develop process

EI

SN

TF

JP


Skills l.jpg
skills

W

T

reframing

empathy

advanced empathy

positive challenge


Approaches l.jpg
approaches

W

T

RET

TA



Slide6 l.jpg

to develop a further understanding of the process of counselling

to further develop the skills of counselling and their application

aims


Suggested programme l.jpg

day 1 recap on what we know counselling

further developing skills

applications in school

some issues in counselling

day 2 further skills: action planning

counselling concepts, styles and approaches

peer counselling; teaching counselling skills to kids; relationship to PSE

more issues and strategies

day 3 putting it all together

practice

dealing with our own problems!

suggested programme


What do you know l.jpg

in groups of 4/5 counselling

discuss what each of you already knows about counselling

prepare a 5 minute presentation to teach the rest of us what you know

YOU HAVE 30 MINUTES TO PREPARE

what do you know?


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HOW THINGS ARE NOW counselling


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THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW


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THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW


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THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”


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THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY


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THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY


Slide18 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY


Slide19 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY


Slide20 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY


Slide21 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide22 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide23 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide24 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide25 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide26 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide27 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide28 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide29 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide30 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide31 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide32 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide33 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide34 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide35 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide36 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide37 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide38 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide39 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


Slide40 l.jpg

THE IDEAL counselling

HOW THINGS ARE NOW

EXPLORE THE SITUATION

A “LITTLE-BIT-BETTER”

DO IT

PROCESS

WHAT FIRST?

PLAN

WHAT COULD I DO?

SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

AIM

BIT-BETTER VISION


What makes counselling work l.jpg

quality of relationship counselling

what makes counselling work?

skills


What makes counselling work44 l.jpg

relationship counselling

what makes counselling work?

skills

  • empathy

  • unconditional positive regard

  • genuineness

  • congruence

  • listening

  • clarifying/questioning

  • positive challenge

  • goal setting

  • action planning

  • processing


What makes counselling work45 l.jpg

relationship counselling

what makes counselling work?

  • empathy

  • unconditional positive regard

  • genuineness

  • congruence

moving towards understanding the other person from their frame of reference

and showing it


What makes counselling work46 l.jpg

relationship counselling

what makes counselling work?

  • empathy

  • unconditional positive regard

  • genuineness

  • congruence

respect; warm and caring irrespective of what the person has said or done


What makes counselling work47 l.jpg

relationship counselling

what makes counselling work?

  • empathy

  • unconditional positive regard

  • genuineness

  • congruence

  • real;

  • sincere;

  • honest with the other person - and with oneself


What makes counselling work48 l.jpg

relationship counselling

what makes counselling work?

  • empathy

  • unconditional positive regard

  • genuineness

  • congruence

  • “all in one piece”

  • no discrepancies between what is said, what is done and what is felt


Empathy l.jpg

a process counselling

trying to get nearer to knowing how someone feels

concerns feelings directly expressed

showing you are doing this (so that the client knows)

“You feel ………. when …………

empathy


Advanced empathy l.jpg

trying to understand feelings that are below the surface counselling

Feelings that are now spoken or openly expressed

“playing your hunches”…..

…..but not playing at psychoanalyzing

advanced empathy



Positive challenge l.jpg

what is implied feel ……..”

discrepancies between what is

said and done

said and said

done and done

said and expressed non-verbally

said/done and what most other people would say/do

positive challenge


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self-sharing feel ……..”

“I felt …….. when ……..

I wonder if it’s like that for you”

positive challenge


Positive challenge breaking bad news l.jpg

how would you feel ……..”

tell someone they’ve been made redundant

speak to a P2 pupil who has been hitting people in the playground and has made someone’s noise bleed

tell a student they can’t do a chosen subject

speak to a teacher after they had slapped a student

tell a parent their son/daughter has been bullying

tell a parent their son/daughter has been caught with ecstasy and the police are on the way

positive challengebreaking bad news


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positive challenge feel ……..”breaking bad news

warning

breaking the bad news

being supportive


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BA PhD MA feel ……..”

0


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REFRAMING feel ……..”

RAM


Download l.jpg

download the course materials from feel ……..”

www.aberdeen-education.org.uk/guidance/downloads

download


We don t all learn and teach the same way l.jpg

We don’t all learn (and teach) the feel ……..”same way!


Why are learning styles important l.jpg

People who are actively engaged in the learning process will more likely achieve success.

A key to getting and keeping learners involved in the learning process is to understand learning style preferences.

why are learning styles important?


Models for learning styles l.jpg

Felder–Silverman Learning Model more likely achieve success.

Herrmann Brain-Dominance Model

Kolb’s Learning-Style Inventory

Honey & Mumford’s model

Barbe-Swassing model

Gregorc model of mind styles

Myers Briggs Personality Types

models for learning styles


Felder silverman learning model l.jpg

sensing more likely achieve success. or intuitive learners

visual or verballearners

inductive or deductive learners

active or reflective learners

sequential orglobal learners

Felder–Silverman Learning Model


Herrmann brain dominance model l.jpg

classifies learners in terms of their relative preferences for thinking in fourdifferent modes

left-brain cerebral (logical thinkers)

left-brain limbic (sequentialthinkers)

right-brain limbic (emotional thinkers)

right-brain cerebral (holistic thinkers).

Herrmann Brain-Dominance Model


Kolb s learning style inventory l.jpg

This classifies learners as having a preference for for thinking in four

concrete experience or abstractconceptualization

active experimentation or reflective observation.

Kolb’s Learning-Style Inventory


Honey mumford s classification l.jpg

Developed from Kolb’s for thinking in fourmodel; learners are

activists

reflectors

pragmatists

theorists

Honey & Mumford’s Classification


Barbe swassing model l.jpg

How we take in and learn information for thinking in four

Visual

learn by seeing and watching

Auditory

learn by listening to verbal instructions

Kinesthetic

learn by being physically involved

Barbe-Swassing Model


Gregorc model of mind styles l.jpg

Perception for thinking in four

how we take in information

Ordering

how we make sense of and use the information

Gregorc model of mind styles


Gregorc model of mind styles75 l.jpg

Perception: how we take in information for thinking in four

Concrete

information directly from our 5 senses; hands-on approach

Abstract

information from visualization or conception; leap easily from real to symbolic world

Gregorc model of mind styles


Gregorc model of mind styles76 l.jpg

Ordering: how we make sense of and use the information for thinking in four

Sequential

linear, step-by-step organization; proceed in orderly way to the end result

Random

no particular sequence; learning in “layers”; starting with the big picture

Gregorc model of mind styles


Gregorc model of mind styles77 l.jpg
Gregorc model of mind styles for thinking in four

Perception

ConcreteAbstract

Ordering

SequentialRandom


The development learning process l.jpg
the development/learning process for thinking in four


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acquiring or taking in information for thinking in four

the development/learning process


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acquiring or taking in information for thinking in four

the development/learning process

using information


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acquiring or taking in information for thinking in four

the development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information


The development learning process82 l.jpg

acquiring or taking in information for thinking in four

the development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment


Getting motivated energised l.jpg

acquiring or taking in information for thinking in four

getting motivated/energised

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment


Getting motivated energised84 l.jpg

extraversion for thinking in four

getting motivated/energised


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extraversion E for thinking in four

getting motivated/energised


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extraversion E for thinking in four

introversion

getting motivated/energised


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extraversion E for thinking in four

introversion I

getting motivated/energised


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E - I for thinking in four

your energy source

what energises you - inner world or outer world

direction of focus - sources of energy

how you are energised

getting motivated/energised


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E I for thinking in four


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E I for thinking in four


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E I for thinking in four


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acquiring or taking in information for thinking in four

the development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment


Acquiring taking in information l.jpg
acquiring/taking in information for thinking in four


Acquiring taking in information94 l.jpg
acquiring/taking in information for thinking in four


Acquiring taking in information95 l.jpg
acquiring/taking in information for thinking in four


Acquiring taking in information96 l.jpg
acquiring/taking in information for thinking in four


Acquiring taking in information97 l.jpg

S - N for thinking in four

way of taking in information/how you prefer to take in information

perceiving preference

what you pay attention to

acquiring/taking in information


Slide98 l.jpg
S N for thinking in four


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S N for thinking in four


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S N for thinking in four


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acquiring or taking in information for thinking in four

the development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment


Using information l.jpg

acquiring or taking in information for thinking in four

using information

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment


Using information103 l.jpg
using information for thinking in four


Using information104 l.jpg
using information for thinking in four


Using information105 l.jpg
using information for thinking in four


Using information106 l.jpg
using information for thinking in four


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T F for thinking in four


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T F for thinking in four


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T F for thinking in four


The environment you prefer l.jpg

acquiring or taking in information for thinking in four

the environment you prefer

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment


The environment you prefer111 l.jpg
the environment you prefer for thinking in four


The environment you prefer112 l.jpg
the environment you prefer for thinking in four


The environment you prefer113 l.jpg
the environment you prefer for thinking in four


The environment you prefer114 l.jpg
the environment you prefer for thinking in four


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J P for thinking in four


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J P for thinking in four


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J P for thinking in four


Which best applies to you l.jpg
which best applies to you? for thinking in four


The sixteen personality types l.jpg
The sixteen personality types for thinking in four


The sixteen personality types120 l.jpg
The sixteen personality types for thinking in four


The development learning process122 l.jpg

acquiring or taking in information for thinking in four

the development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment


Getting motivated energised123 l.jpg

E - I for thinking in four

your energy source

what energises you - inner world or outer world

direction of focus - sources of energy

how you are energised

getting motivated/energised


E s prefer l.jpg

being in a group for thinking in four

group work; group projects; group brainstorming

talking (although they get rather fed up with too much talk from others eg teacher!)

talking before doing individual work or individual thinking

Es prefer


E s prefer125 l.jpg

activities which give a chance to reconsider thoughts or possible answers or solutions

relatively short, fast-moving activities/environment

trial and error problem-solving (they often succeed when the principles follow the experience, e.g. when using computers, microscopes or doing maths activities)

Es prefer


E s prefer126 l.jpg

learning by watching someone else do something first (modelling) (eg in science allow extraverts to try or watch an experiment before you explain it)

talking to lots of other people when wrestling with a problem

action and variety

knowing what other people expect of them

Es prefer


E s prefer127 l.jpg

relatively easily distracted (eg do not often concentrate best when sitting next to a window)

Es prefer


I s prefer l.jpg

individual activities best when sitting next to a window)

one-to-one or small group interaction, and may find larger groups difficult

“lectures” more than extraverts

not being put on the spot by too many questions which require spontaneous answers ‑ time for preparation would be helpful here (introverts are not usually the first to raise their hands in class)

Is prefer


I s prefer129 l.jpg

pauses best when sitting next to a window)for thinking or reflection after being given a question, task or problem

someone else modelling a course of action before they attempt it

“rehearsing” before they do something eg speak in front of large group or give oral presentations

concentrating on a few tasks at a time

Is prefer


I s prefer130 l.jpg

taking best when sitting next to a window)their time to understand something before they try it

want to understand the concept before trying to solve a problem

to set their own standards

Is prefer


Slide131 l.jpg

can often cope with (shut out) distractions best when sitting next to a window)

do not always express enthusiasms immediately (eg for a particular course of action)

may need reassurance that it is OK for them not to be extravert

I s


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acquiring or taking in information best when sitting next to a window)

the development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment


Acquiring taking in information133 l.jpg

S - N best when sitting next to a window)

way of taking in information/how you prefer to take in information

perceiving preference

what you pay attention to

acquiring/taking in information


S s prefer l.jpg

to best when sitting next to a window)use eyes/ears/touch to find out what's happening

information and facts as well as (vague) ideas and theories (may find abstract concepts difficult or stressful)

“lectures” or programmed learning, but only if they “attract attention” (straight lectures or lots of teacher talk aren't usually enough)

audio-visual presentations (rather than just OHP presentations)

S s prefer


S s prefer135 l.jpg

solving problems through standard methods (so may have difficulty with new problems if this can't be done)

skills practice

work experience; community service etc

hands-on activities; practical work

case studies

tasks which involve the use of senses (eg touch) and which are definite and measurable

S s prefer


S s prefer136 l.jpg

using difficulty with new problems if this can't be done)skills they've already learned more than learning new skills

practical/concrete examples

having precise step-by-step directions/ideas about what they are going to do

definite measurable things

facts ‑ and distrust vague ideas

a reference (eg a chapter in a book which they can use as a study guide

S s prefer


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may difficulty with new problems if this can't be done) be patient with details but impatient when details get complicated

may find challenge difficult

sometimes find it difficult when INTUITIVE (N) teachers present material from several different perspectives (eg in social subjects)

S s


N s prefer l.jpg

reading difficulty with new problems if this can't be done)and listening activities

paying attention to meanings of facts and how they fit together

open-ended situations

using imagination to come up with possibilities and new ways of doing things

solving new problems, particularly those which don't have one particular solution

N s prefer


N s prefer139 l.jpg

not doing things over and over again - get bored with “practice” activities and lose interest

learning new skills rather than practising those already learned

challenge and open-ended, creative activities

self-paced learning

group discussions which allow imagination

N s prefer


N s prefer140 l.jpg

role “practice” activities and lose interestplay (particularly if the person also prefers extraversion)

having new topics introduced in such a way that it encourages them to look upon them as challenges (but if you give them too many details at first they may feel overwhelmed)

N s prefer


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may “practice” activities and lose interestbe impatient with details but don't mind complicated situations

dislike routine

sometimes find it difficult to get down to concrete realities

N s


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acquiring or taking in information “practice” activities and lose interest

the development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment


Slide143 l.jpg
T F “practice” activities and lose interest


T s prefer l.jpg

deciding things logically “practice” activities and lose interest

“lectures” if logically structured

being treated with justice and fair play

tasks/problems with right answers

praise for getting things “right”; they tend to value individual achievement

T s prefer


T s prefer145 l.jpg

rank-ordering (eg of courses of action) “practice” activities and lose interest

to know where they stand in relation to others and can be devastated by failure

feedback – and quickly - on what they've done

work to be marked, and feedback given – quickly

researching information and debate

to be task oriented

T s prefer


T s prefer146 l.jpg

programmed learning “practice” activities and lose interest

debates

problem-solving activities involving collecting, organizing and evaluating data

activities which involve research (e.g. library research) and allow them to share results with others

T s prefer


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sometimes hurt other people's feelings without realising it; they may pay more attention to ideas than to other people's feelings

don't necessarily need harmony, and often don't mind conflict so much as other people

may enjoy talking with teachers rather than peers

T s


F s prefer l.jpg

to decide according to personal feelings or values they may pay more attention to ideas than to other people's feelings

pleasing people, even in unimportant things

activities involving positive feedback

praise for the effort they've put in

F s prefer


F s prefer149 l.jpg

taking account of other people's feelings more than ideas, and they sometimes ignore the logic

harmony and get upset by conflict

appreciate being known personally by the teacher

knowing they're liked

helping others, so may make good “peer teachers” (but remember “prefer” does not always equal “good at”)

F s prefer


F s prefer150 l.jpg

group discussion and group decision-making and role play particularly if person also has a preference for extraversion

F s prefer


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may find it difficult to challenge others, even in a small way, because they worry about dealing with the possible (conflict) response

have difficulty in accepting criticism, sarcasm, ridicule

F s


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acquiring or taking in information way, because they worry about dealing with the possible (conflict) response

the development/learning process

getting motivated or energised

using information

your preferred environment


Slide153 l.jpg
J P way, because they worry about dealing with the possible (conflict) response


J s prefer l.jpg

to have a plan, & have things settled in advance way, because they worry about dealing with the possible (conflict) response

highly structured activities with clear deadlines

to have clear purposes and instructions

things to turn out the way they “ought to be”

to finish one project before they start another, so may like to try out courses of action one at a time

J s prefer


J s prefer155 l.jpg

to decide things fairly quickly way, because they worry about dealing with the possible (conflict) response

to be right

to live by schedules which are not easily changed

J s prefer


J s prefer156 l.jpg

to be told in advance of any changes in procedures or schedules (e.g. if there is to be a substitute teacher or a change in schedule such as an assembly) and make sure they know for how long

to have a course outline so that they know the topics which will be covered during a term/course/year

J s prefer


Slide157 l.jpg

may find it difficult to cope with too many unfinished projects - implications for Standard Grade assignments here?

J s


P s prefer l.jpg

to be flexible & not have plans which are too fixed, so find target setting and action planning rather a problem (“Not target setting again; we’ve done that”, they might say!)

flexible tasks which can be approached in different ways

unplanned and unexpected happenings

P s prefer


P s prefer159 l.jpg

to start lots of projects, but have trouble finishing them all (so may like to try out lots of courses of action at once at not complete them properly)

to decide things fairly slowly

to miss nothing

to live by making changes to deal with problems as they arise

discussions which do not lead to preconceived conclusions

P s prefer


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may find games helpful in learning concepts all (so may like to try out lots of courses of action at once at not complete them properly)

often find sitting at a desk for long periods of time boring, and can distract others by their activity during “quiet times” if they aren't allowed the chance to move around at some time (remember that PERCEIVING pupils often act spontaneously!)

P s


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often enjoy long discussions which do not lead to preconceived conclusions

may need help in completing assignments on time

can sometimes be helped to develop plans for their work by working backwards from deadlines

P s


Slide162 l.jpg

BE CAREFUL… preconceived conclusions

…not to interpret their “off-task” behaviour as confrontation with the teacher ‑ they often just like having fun and enjoying life, and have a good sense of humour which can be harnessed in the classroom

P s


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Terry Ashton, preconceived conclusionsAdviser (Guidance and Careers)

[email protected]

Website on Guidance/pastoral care/PSE

www.aberdeen-education.org.uk/guidance

contact details


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index preconceived conclusions

the learning process

E learning preferences

description of styles

I learning preferences

styles: being energized

S learning preferences

styles: acquiring information

N learning preferences

styles: using information

T Learning preferences

styles: your environment

F learning preferences

J learning preferences

learning

contact details

P learning preferences


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human beings are uniquely rational (as well as irrational!) - when they think rationally they are competent, happy and effective

emotional/psychological disturbance is the result of irrational thinking (thought and emotion are not separate)

people are biologically predisposed to irrational thinking (which leads to emotional disturbance)

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

assumptions


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human beings are verbal animals and thinking usually occurs through the use of symbols or language- so when people are disturbed they perpetuate their disturbance by irrational ideas and thoughts (we are our thoughts)

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

assumptions


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continuing emotional disturbance is the result of self- verbalisations and not the result of events. (PEOPLE ARE DISTURBED NOT BY THINGS BUT BY THE VIEW THEY TAKE OF THEM)

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

assumptions


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negative and irrational thoughts need to be attacked by a recognition of the perceptions and thinking so that the thinking becomes logical and rational. SO THE GOAL OF THE COUNSELLOR IS TO DEMONSTRATE TO CLIENTS THAT THE SELF-VERBALISATIONS ARE ILLOGICAL AND IRRATIONAL

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

assumptions


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ANTECEDENT recognition of the perceptions and thinking so that the thinking becomes logical and rational. SO THE GOAL OF THE COUNSELLOR IS TO DEMONSTRATE TO CLIENTS THAT THE SELF-VERBALISATIONS ARE ILLOGICAL AND IRRATIONAL

BELIEFS

CONSEQUENCES

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

THE A-B-C THEORY


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11 beliefs that are universally inculcated by western society

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

irrational beliefs


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I must be loved or approved of by virtually everyone society

I must be perfectly competent, adequate and achieving to be considered worthwhile

If things are not as I want them to be, it is a terrible catastrophe

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

irrational beliefs


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there is always a right or perfect solution to every problem, and it must be found or the results will be catastrophic

unhappiness is caused by outside circumstances and a person has no control over it

dangerous and fearsome things are cause for great concern and their possibility must be continually dwelt upon

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

irrational beliefs


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it is easier to avoid certain difficulties and self-responsibilities than to face up to them

a person should be dependent on others and should have someone stronger on whom to rely

past experiences and events are the determinants of present behaviour; the influence of the past cannot be eradicated

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

irrational beliefs


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a person should be quite upset over other people’s problems and disturbances

Some people are bad, wicked or villainous and therefore should be blamed and punished

Rational Emotive Counselling (RET)

irrational beliefs


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Transactional Analysis (TA) problems and disturbances

egostates


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Transactional Analysis (TA) problems and disturbances

P

A

C


Transactional analysis ta180 l.jpg
Transactional Analysis (TA) problems and disturbances

P

AA

C

egstates


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Transactional Analysis (TA) problems and disturbances

set of feelings, thoughts attitudes and behaviours which resemble those of parental figures

P

A

C


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Transactional Analysis (TA) problems and disturbances

P

A

C

objective, rational, makes judgements


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Transactional Analysis (TA) problems and disturbances

P

A

C

set of feelings, thoughts attitudes and behaviours that are relics of an individual’s childhood eg spontaneity


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