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5. Predetermined Time System. Classifications. Advantages of predetermined times. Setting standards for a very short motions (very hard to evaluate using other measures) Standard “language” of documenting sequences of elements which define operations

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Advantages of predetermined times l.jpg
Advantages of predetermined times

  • Setting standards for a very short motions (very hard to evaluate using other measures)

  • Standard “language” of documenting sequences of elements which define operations

  • Enable to determine standard times for new operations for whom we don’t have past data

  • Enable to compare different methods of performing a new task (before applying the preferred method)

  • Usable for workers training


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Methods Time Measurements (MTM)

  • The data for the development of MTM was obtained from motion pictures (using mechanical cameras) of skilled workers performing a wide range of motions

  • Influence factors were identified and isolated in the motion analysis

  • The influence factors became the motion characteristics which are used for determining the standard times

  • Each motion was separately defined and tabulated for setting the standard times

  • MTM was accepted as a standard method in many countries all over the world


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MTM-1 – the basic MTM module

  • Basic time unit: TMU = time Measurement Unit

    1 TMU = 0.00001 hour

    = 0.0006 min

    = 0.036 sec

    This time unit was a result of the picture technology

  • This time unit enable investigating much shorter motions (around 3-4 hundredth of a second) than using a stopwatch


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MTM-1 (1948) – definition & characteristics

  • A procedure which analyses manual work into a basic motions required to perform it

  • The procedure assigns to each motion a pre-determined time standard which is influenced by the environmental conditions

  • Based on 23 basic motions and consists of approximately 5,000 time values (4,988)


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Basic Elements

  • Reach (R): move the hand or finger to a destination – affected by the length of the motion and the type of reach

  • Move (M): transport an object to a destination – affected by length of a motion, the weight of the object and the type of move

  • Grasp (G): secure sufficient control on one or more objects with the fingers or hand in order to permit the performance of the next required motion – affected by the size shape and location of the object

  • Position (P): align, orient, and engage object with another object (when only minor motions required) – affected by the ease of handling, symmetry and the amount of pressure required for insertion

  • Release (RL): relinquish control of an object by the fingers or hand


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Basic Elements (cont.)

  • Disengage (D): break contact between one object to another – affected by the amount of effort required

  • Turn (T): the motion employed to turn the hand, either empty or loaded, by a movement that rotates the hand, wrist, and forearm about the long axis of the forearm – affected by the degree of rotation and by the weight of the object

  • Apply pressure (AP)

  • Eye Travel (ET): considered only when the eyes must direct the hand or the body movements (includes eye focus and eye travel time) – affected by the distance between the travel points and the distance between the eye to the line of travel

  • Body leg and foot motion (BMF): other motions which are associated with the body and legs (walking, standing, bending etc.)


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Other MTM Based Methods

  • MTM-2 (1965):

    • Used for setting standard time for longer tasks

    • Based on 9 basic motions and consists of 39 time values

  • MTM-3 (1970):

    • Consists of 4 categories of manual motions (10 time values):

    • Handle, Transport, Step & foot motion, and Bend & arise

  • MTM-V : Metal cutting operations

  • MTM-C : Clerical work


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MOST – Maynard Operation Sequence Technique

  • In MTM:

    • the elements are stand alone and do not relate to the sequence of the operation

  • In MOST:

    • The compete sequence of the operation, which consists of smaller elements, is addressed


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What is MOST ?

  • Maynard Operation Sequence Technique

  • Developed by Zandin (1980)

  • Utilizes larger blocks of fundamental motions than MTM-1

  • General Move

    • A B G A B P A

  • Controlled Move

    • A B G M X I A

  • Tool Use

    • A B G A B P _ A B P A


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Three activity sequences in MOST

  • The General Move Sequence (for a free movement through air)

  • The Controlled Move Sequence (for a movement in which the object remains in contact with a surface or is attached to another object during the movement)

  • The Tool Use Sequence (for the use of common hand tools)


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Why MOST?

  • It is much faster than traditional time study technique (e.g. Basic MOST is 40 times faster than MTM-1)

  • Accuracy of up to 95% can be obtained

  • It requires less documentation


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Remember TMU ?

  • Time for therbligs is measured in Time Measurement Unit (TMU)

  • 1 TMU = 0.00001 hour

    = 0.0006 minute

    = 0.036 second

  • 1 hour = 100,000 TMU

  • 1 minute = 1,667 TMU

  • 1 second = 27.8 TMU





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Example

  • Get cover, and place in front.

    • Reach 24”, grasp, move 24” in front.

  • Open cover.

    • Reach the cover with other hand by 30”, grasp the flap of cover, disengage the flap with normal effort, turn flap by 120 degree.

  • Remove spec from the cover, and place aside on table.

    • Grasp the spec inside the cover, move it out of the frame by 4”, move it on the table by 30”

  • Close the cover.

    • Reach for the cover flap in other hand, turn the cover to close, apply slight pressure

  • Put the cover aside.

    • Move it back to previous position in 30”


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Example

  • Get cover, and place in front.

    • Reach 24”, grasp, move 24” in front.

    • A1 B0 G1 A1 B0 P1 A0

  • Open cover.

    • Reach the cover with other hand by 30”, grasp the flap of cover, disengage the flap with normal effort, turn flap by 120 degree.

    • A1 B0 G3 M1 X0 I0 A0

  • Remove spec from the cover, and place aside on table.

    • Grasp the spec inside the cover, move it out of the frame by 4”, move it on the table by 30”

    • A1 B0 G3 A1 B0 P1 A0


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Example

  • Close the cover.

    • Reach for the cover flap in other hand, turn the cover to close, apply slight pressure

    • A1 B0 G1 M3 X0 I0 A0

  • Put the cover aside.

    • Move it back to previous position in 30”

    • A0 B0 G0 A1 B0 P1 A1


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