Geography of canada
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GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA. Social Studies 10 Chapter 3 & 8 Canadian Geography & Economy. CANADA: A REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY What regions are evident?. Physical Regions. Economic Regions. Climate. Political Regions. Five Themes of C anada’s G eography. Location: relative and absolute

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Geography of canada

GEOGRAPHY OF CANADA

Social Studies 10

Chapter 3 & 8

Canadian Geography & Economy


Canada a regional geography what regions are evident

CANADA: A REGIONAL GEOGRAPHYWhat regions are evident?


Physical regions

Physical Regions


Economic regions

Economic Regions


Climate

Climate


Political regions

Political Regions


Five themes of c anada s g eography

Five Themes of Canada’s Geography

  • Location: relative and absolute

  • Place: human and physical

  • Human and Environment Interactions: adaptation, modification, dependence

  • Movement: migration and transportation

  • Regions: consistent, focused, aligned, linked


Theme 1 location

Theme 1: Location

  • Two Types of Location

  • Absolute

  • Relative

  • Where is It?

  • Why is It There?


Absolute location

Absolute Location

  • A specific place on the Earth’s surface

  • Uses a grid system

  • Latitude and longitude

  • A global address


British columbia

British Columbia

Absolute Location

  • BC

    54° N Latitude

    125° W longitude

  • Vancouver

    49° 25' N Latitude

    123° 10' W Longitude


Relative location

Relative Location

  • Where a place is in relation to another place

  • Uses directional words to describe

  • Cardinal and intermediate directions


British columbia1

British Columbia

  • British Columbia is bordered by Yukon in the north, Washington and Idaho tothe south, and Alberta on the west.

  • The Pacific Ocean forms British Columbia's west coast.

  • British Columbia is one of the western provinces


Theme 2 place physical characteristics

Theme 2: PlacePhysical Characteristics

  • Land Features

  • Mountains, plains, and plateaus

  • Climate

  • Bodies of Water


British columbia physical characteristics

British Columbia: Physical Characteristics

Photos above: Steve Pierce

http://www.wetmaap.org/Cape_Hatteras/ch_tm_2.html


Theme 2 place human characteristics

Theme 2: PlaceHuman Characteristics

  • People

  • Culture

  • Language

  • Religion

  • Buildings and Landmarks

  • Cities


British columbia human characteristics

British Columbia: Human Characteristics

http://www.rivinus.com/camerastuff/charlotte_nc.htm

National Geographic Magazine

Top right:http://graphics.fansonly.com/photos/schools/unc/nonsport/school-bio/unc-oldwell2-lg.jpg


Theme 3 human environment interaction

Theme 3: Human Environment Interaction

How People Interact With Their Environment

People . . .

  • Adapt to Their Environment

  • Modify Their Environment

  • Depend on Their Environment

http://www.fotosearch.com/comp/corbis/DGT119/BAG0017.jpg


British columbia human environment interaction

British Columbia: Human Environment Interaction

http://aam.wcu.edu/grant/images/Fontana%20Dam%20Shirley.jpg

http://www.dukemagazine.duke.edu/dukemag/issues/091002/images/mallc.jpg

http://www.ee.duke.edu/~sag8/Duke/02-03/PiKA/Fall%20Break/Fall_Break_02.htm


Theme 4 movement

Theme 4: Movement

The Mobility of

  • People

  • Goods

  • Ideas

    How Places are linked to one another and the world


British columbia movement

British Columbia: Movement

http://www.marad.dot.gov/Gallery/MoreheadCity/pages/Ming%20Europe.htm

http://www.evertize.com/land/images/I-40-64%20interchange.JPG


Theme 5 regions

Theme 5: Regions

What Places Have in Common

  • Political Regions

  • Landform Regions

  • Agricultural Regions

  • Cultural Regions


British columbia regions

British Columbia: Regions

Steve Pierce

http://home.neo.rr.com/rodsphotogallery/NaturalWonders/SeaSand/Images/JockeysRidge.jpg

http://www.ncbbi.org/images/piedmont-images/piedmont-nc-heartland-golf.jpg

http://www.homestead.com/pncfa/files/piedmontmap.jpg

http://www.shorebirdworld.org/fromthefield/Images/Hatteras%20Light.JPG


Canada territorial template over satellite p hoto c omposite

Canada: Territorial template over Satellite Photo Composite


Divisions and places

Divisions and Places

Placing the Canadian map

Political divisions: provinces and territories


Fundamentals of physical g eography

Fundamentals of Physical Geography

  • Geology-process, structure, time

  • Topography-relief, slope

  • Soils-texture, pH, organic matter

  • Vegetation-water, arboreal, ecotone

  • Climate-air mass, current, precipitation, temperature, system


Underlying geology

Underlying Geology

  • Pink: Precambrian granites

  • Green: younger sediments

  • Yellow: faulted and meta-morphasizedsediments

  • Blue: older sediments


Glacial legacy

Glacial Legacy

  • Wisconsin-last ice age, maximum 18,000 yrs. BP

  • Southern limits-Wisconsin and Ohio Valley

  • Recedes-15,000-7,000 yrs. BP

  • Covers virtually all of Canada and northern US

  • Ice free corridor from Alaska through Yukon into northern BC


Remnant glacial l andscapes

Remnant Glacial Landscapes

  • Ice margin

  • End moraine

  • Glacial lakes

  • Spillways

  • Kettle lakes

  • Eskers

  • Drumlins

  • Till plain

  • Erratic


Glacial till and erratic

Glacial Till and Erratic


E sker

Esker


Drumlin and d rumlin f ield

Drumlin and Drumlin Field


Glacial lake louise and paternoster lakes

Glacial lake Louise and Paternoster Lakes


Http www youtube com watch v iyqlskqfeo4

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IyqlsKQfeo4


St lawrence lowlands

St. Lawrence Lowlands

  • Less than 2% of landmass; smallest region

  • Windsor to Quebec City

  • Sedimentary geology with glacial deposits

  • Moderate climate

  • Fertile soils

  • Long growing season

  • Close to the US

  • Canadian HEARTLAND


French canadian long lot farms and niagara falls

French Canadian ‘long lot’ farms and Niagara Falls


The great lakes and ottawa

The Great Lakes and Ottawa


Toronto climate

Toronto Climate


Canadian shield

Canadian Shield

  • 50% of Canada’s landmass; largest region

  • Almost entirely contained in Canada

  • Geological core underlies North America

  • Precambrian rocks more than 3 billion yrs.

  • Exposed granite and shallow soils

  • Glaciation evident

  • Mixed Boreal forest

  • Northern continental climate


Canadian shield vistas

Canadian shield vistas


Ste agathe climate

Ste. AgatheClimate


Appalachian uplands

Appalachian Uplands

  • Over 2% of landmass

  • Northern part of Appalachians

  • Rounded uplands and plateaux

  • Numerous islands along drowned shoreline

  • Narrow river valleys

  • Rocky, shallow soils

  • Mixed forests

  • Cool maritime climate

  • Short summer wet, winter


Interior farms and forests coastal s ettlements

Interior Farms and Forests, Coastal Settlements


Fredericton nb

Fredericton, NB


Hudson bay lowlands

Hudson Bay Lowlands

  • Over 3.5% landmass

  • Muskeg or wet peat lands

  • Many lakes

  • Low ridges of sand and gravel

  • Poorly drained

  • Level

  • Northern climate

  • Maritime influence

  • Short, warm summer

  • Long, cold winter


Moosonee climate g raph and hudson bay lowland vista

MoosoneeClimate Graph and Hudson Bay Lowland Vista


Interior plains

Interior Plains

  • About 20% land mass

  • Geologic base of sedimentary rock

  • Shaped by glaciation and re-directed drainage

  • Incised river valleys

  • Slopes up from east to west with rich soils

  • Hudson’s Bay watershed

  • Oil and gas deposits

  • Continental climate

  • Moderate to low precipitation


Plains agriculture and regina climate g raph

Plains Agriculture and Regina Climate Graph


Cordillera

Cordillera

  • Region of intra-regional differences

  • About 16% of land mass

  • Formed 40-80 million years ago from collision of North American and Pacific Plates

  • Rockies up thrust sediments

  • Coastal mountains volcanic: ‘ring of fire’

  • Glaciers remain in Alpine areas

  • Fertile valleys and deltas

  • Coniferous

  • Multiple micro-climates


Mountains and valleys

Mountains and Valleys


Banff and victoria climate g raphs

Banff and Victoria Climate Graphs


Arctic lowlands

Arctic Lowlands

  • About 13% land mass

  • Coastal plains and lowlands

  • Islands and drowned shorelines

  • Sedimentary

  • Permafrost

  • Frost action is the main geomorphic process

  • Polar desert with very low precipitation

  • Extreme arctic climate conditions


Iqaluit climate g raph and arctic lowlands gista

Iqaluit Climate Graph and Arctic Lowlands Gista


Innuitian mountains

Innuitian Mountains

  • About 12% land mass

  • Plateaux and mountains

  • Extreme glaciation and extensive weathering of sedimentary rock

  • Extensive coastal drowning and fjiords

  • Islands

  • Uplifting and isostatic rebound

  • Extreme cold

  • Pack ice and ice flows

  • Glacier calving


Arctic mountain s cenery and resolute c limate g raph

Arctic Mountain Scenery and Resolute Climate Graph


Drainage well drained s outh poorly d rained n orth

Drainage: Well Drained South; Poorly Drained North


Climate1

Climate

  • Continental and maritime influences

  • Prevailing winds

  • Jet stream

  • Mountain effects

  • Air masses

  • Freezing point

  • Seasonal variability

  • Precipitation

  • Cloud cover

  • Evaporation


Lacsapoopa climate factors

LACSAPOOPA- Climate Factors

L- Latitude: North or South from Equator.

A- Altitude: 1.5 degrees Celsius /100 meters.

C- Clouds: Types and cover.

S- Seasons: 4, 2, 1.

A- Aspect: North or South facing.

P- Prevailing Winds: Westerlies, Easterlies, Trades.

O- Ocean Proximity: Maritime versus Continental.

O- Ocean Currents: Prevailing currents

P- Pressure Systems: Highs & Lows.

A- Albedo: Snow, water, ground and reflection.


Where are the people population distribution

Where are the people? Population Distribution

  • In cities near the USA

  • 80% in cities over 100,000

  • 80% within 100km of the US border

  • ‘main street Canada’: Windsor to Quebec City

  • Agricultural western interior

  • Coastal and river valley settlement in Atlantic region

  • Resource points in the Shield and the North

  • Western cordillera valleys and the BC coast


Canada cmas and population change 1996 2001

Canada CMAs and Population Change, 1996-2001


Canada s urban and agricultural settlement archipelago

Canada’s Urban and Agricultural settlement Archipelago

  • Pattern set over 100 years ago

  • Islands of population and settlement amid a vast, inhospitable and often empty land

  • Contrast between heartland and hinterland

  • Regional centers

  • Hugging the border

  • The empty north


The people place region relationship

The People, Place, Region Relationship

  • Canada has always had urban centers where most people lived and worked

  • Urban centers were surrounded by a rural sphere to constitute the heartland

  • Beyond the rural lands, towns and villages, a sparsely populated resource extraction periphery or hinterland extended to the farthest reaches of the country

  • With transportation advances people moved to the commuting suburbs of cities


Three popular canadian explanations and one not so popular bilateral explanation

Three Popular Canadian Explanations and One Not So Popular Bilateral Explanation


Canada as a storehouse of raw m aterials old and new explanations

Canada as a Storehouse of Raw Materials: Old and New explanations


Fisheries then and now historic grand banks pacific salmon catch and p rospects

Fisheries, then and now: Historic Grand Banks; Pacific Salmon catch and Prospects


Fur trade l egacy

Fur Trade Legacy


Renewable forestry

Renewable Forestry


Agricultural potential

Agricultural Potential


Agricultural production

Agricultural Production


Minerals and mining

Minerals and Mining


Mining potential

Mining Potential


Geography of canada

Oil


Metropolitan heartland

Metropolitan Heartland

  • “Main Street Canada”

  • Red area is continuous urban ribbon

  • Green area is adjacent commuter shed and integrated use region

  • Toronto and Montreal metropolitan cores linked to other growth centers along the spine


Bc lower m ainland and c algary edmonton c orridor

BC Lower Mainland and Calgary-Edmonton Corridor


Financial services

Financial Services


Cn and cp railway s ystems

CN and CP Railway Systems


Airports and airport a uthorities

Airports and Airport Authorities


Ethnic diversity

Ethnic Diversity


Ethnic minorities in cities

Ethnic “Minorities” in Cities

  • Toronto: Canada’s cosmopolitan leader

  • Allophones in Montreal

  • Asian populations expand in most cities

  • Black populations in most Canadian cities but predominate in east

  • Aboriginal populations growing in all urban centers


Canada s regional c haracter socio economic r egions s haped b y

Canada’s Regional Character: Socio-Economic Regions Shaped By

Shape affected by:

  • Heartland/Hinterlands relations

  • Confluence of political, cultural and social dynamics=regional identity

  • Proximity of the US


Meshing p hysiography and human g eography to comprehend canada s regions

Meshing Physiography and Human Geography to comprehend Canada’s Regions


Canada s regions m ap

Canada’s Regions Map

  • North and south distinguished

  • Settlement and urbanization acknowledged

  • Cultures recognized

  • Political divisions sustained

  • Traditional aggregates


Placing canada into temporal and geographical c ontext

Placing Canada into Temporal and Geographical Context

  • 1000s of years of indigenous human presence

  • European contact over centuries: late 15th to 19th

  • European re-settlement by force, treaty, depopulation (disease)

  • Historical geography matters socially, politically and ecologically

  • Map shows Canada at Confederation


Canada in global c ontext globalization i ndex

Canada in Global Context (Globalization Index)


Current geographical issues

Current “Geographical” Issues

  • Native land claims: British Columbia, the North, creation of Nunavut

  • Environmental crises: energy, climate change, forest degradation

  • Borders: US, Arctic

  • Federal/Provincial: the national/regional power balancing act, fiscal control

  • City growth and expansion: newcomers, transportation, crime, planning


Key words and concepts

Key words and Concepts

Geography Basics

  • Adaptation

  • Human and environment interaction

  • Location

  • Place

  • Province

  • Region

  • Territorial template

  • Territory

Physical Geography

  • Air mass

  • Alpine

  • Appalachian

  • Archipelago

  • Arctic Lowlands

  • Boreal

  • Canadian Shield

  • Continental climate

  • Cordilleran

  • Drainage system

  • Drumlin

  • Drowned shoreline

  • End moraine


Geography of canada

Physical Geography (cont.)

  • Erratic

  • Esker

  • Fjiord

  • Glacial lake

  • Glaciation

  • Glacier calving

  • Hudson Bay Lowlands

  • Ice free corridor

  • Incised valley

  • Innuitian

  • Interior Plains

  • Isostatic rebound

  • Jetstream

  • Kettle lake

  • Maritime climate

  • Micro-climate

  • Muskeg

  • Pack ice

  • Paternoster lakes

  • Peatlands

  • Permafrost

  • Physiographic region

  • Plant hardiness zone

  • Polar desert

  • Precambrian


Geography of canada

Physical Geography (cont.)

  • Relief

  • ‘Ring of Fire’

  • Sedimentary

  • Spillway

  • St. Lawrence Lowlands

  • Topography

  • Till plain

  • Wisconsin glaciation

    Human Geography

  • Aboriginal

  • Agri-food

  • Airport authority

  • Allophone

  • Borderland relationship

  • Borders

  • CMA

  • CN and CP

  • Commuter shed

  • Climate change

  • Corridor

  • Confederation

  • Cultural identity

  • European contact

  • Energy crisis

  • Ethnic diversity

  • Ethnic minority

  • Federal/Provincial issues


Geography of canada

Human Geography (cont.)

  • Forest heritage

  • Fur trade

  • Global linkages

  • Global relationships

  • Globalization Index

  • Grand Banks

  • Heartland/Hinterland

  • Indigenous

  • ‘Main Street Canada’

  • Metropolitan core

  • Mineral lease

  • Native land claims

  • Oil pipeline

  • Physical disunity

  • Population density

  • Resource extraction periphery

  • Resource points

  • Rural sphere

  • Staples development

  • Suburban area

  • Urban center


References

References

  • Adams, Michael, Fire and Ice: The United States, Canada, and the Myth of Converging Values. Toronto: penguin, 2003.

  • Bone, Robert M. The Regional Geography of Canada. Don Mills: Oxford, 2005.

  • Lemon, James T. Liberal Dreams and Nature’s Limit: Great Cities of North America Since 1600. Toronto: Oxford, 1996.

  • Lipset, Seymour M. Continental Divide: The Values and Institutions of the United States and Canada. New York: Routledge, 1990.

  • McCann, L. D., ed., A Geography of Canada: Heartland and Hinterland. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1982 (several later editions).

  • Warkentin, John, Canada: A Regional Geography. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1997.

  • Many maps and images may be obtained at the following websites as well as through search engines:

    www.canadainfolink.ca/geog.htm

    http://atlas.nrcan.gc/site/english/index.html

  • Any comprehensive atlas of Canada is an asset

  • See also, Historical Atlas of Canada. 3 volumes. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.


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