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Chapter 1 Nouns.  Les Hanson 2002. Nouns. Definition of nouns Capitalization pluralization. Names of particular people, places, or things E.g. S tockwell D ay, A lberta, C anadian A lliance But not general references p arty l eader, c ommunist, f ascist, r ight wing.

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Chapter 1 nouns

Chapter 1Nouns

 Les Hanson 2002


Nouns
Nouns

  • Definition of nouns

  • Capitalization

  • pluralization


When to capitalize nouns

Names of particular people, places, or things

E.g. StockwellDay, Alberta, Canadian Alliance

But not general references

party leader, communist, fascist, right wing

When to capitalize nouns

  • In general, specific names require capitals

    • Lake Superior, Fred, Great Depression

  • General names do not require capitals

    • the prairies, my uncle, a recession


Names and titles
Names and Titles

  • Capitalize titles that precede names

    • Prime Minister Chretien, Aunt Polly

      But not when used alone, or after names

    • The minister was demoted to the back benches

    • Bill, my uncle, sat beside Gary Doer, premier of Manitoba


Sentences
Sentences

  • Capitalize the first word of a sentence

  • And the first word of a quoted sentence

    • She said, “You are stupid.”

  • Don’t capitalize the second part of a fragmented quotation

    • “You are stupid,” she said, “and your mother dresses you funny.”

  • Don’t capitalize partial quotes

    • He talked of the “plausible deniability” of the scheme.


Titles of books articles and songs
Titles of books, articles, and songs

  • Capitalize the first, last, and all important words in a title

  • Don’t capitalize short articles, prepositions, and conjunctions

    • As You Like It

    • The Merry Wives of Windsor

    • Love’s Labours Lost

    • Taming of the Shrew

    • The Merchant of Venice


Dates and directions
Dates and Directions

  • Capitalize days of the week, months, holidays

    • Monday, June, Thanksgiving

  • But not seasons

    • summer, fall, winter

  • Don’t capitalize directions

    • I drove north for two blocks

  • Unless it refers to a specific location

    • Fighting broke out in the Middle East

    • Winter roads are common in the North


Names of groups
Names of Groups

  • Capitalize races, religions, nationalities and languages

    • Bosnian, Buddhism,French, Cree


Product names
Product Names

  • Capitalize brand names and trademarks

    • Coke, Kleenix, Roller Blades, Popsicle

  • Do not capitalize generic product names

    • cola, tissues, inline skates, flavoured ice


Course names
Course Names

  • Capitalize specific names of courses

    • History 101, Intermediate Basket-weaving, a Bachelor of Arts degree

  • But not general references to courses

    • geography, communication, accounting

    • He is studying engineering


Pluaralization
Pluaralization

  • Regular plurals

  • Adding –s

  • Adding-es

    (-s, --ss, -sh, ch, -x, -z)

    Nouns ending in –y

    Nouns ending in ay,ey,oy,uy

    Nouns ending in o

    Nouns ending in –f


The pronunciation of the plural endings s and es
The pronunciation of the plural endings –s and -es

  • Iz (After –s,-ss,-z, -x, se, dge, -ge)

  • Bus, horse, buzz, wish, match, wage

  • Z (After vowel sounds and voiced consonants)

  • Day, car,dog,home

  • S

  • After other unvoiced consonants

  • Book, lip,cliff


Otherplurals
OtherPlurals

  • Irregular plurals

  • Words of foreign origin

  • Nouns which do not change in the plural

  • Nouns which look singular but are in fact plural

  • Nouns ending in –s which are in fact singular


Irregular plurals
Irregular plurals

  • Man\ woman\ Child

  • foot/\tooth\goose

  • Losue\ Mouse\ ox

  • Penny ( pennies- pence)

    Pennies (to talk about the number of coins) e.g there are 5 pennies on the table

    pence(to talk about the value of something)e.g, the small apples are 5 pence each.


Words of foreign origin
Words of foreign origin

  • Ending in –us =-uses, -I

    Cactus, fungus,stimulus.

  • Ending in –a = -as, -ae

    Alga, formula, vertebra

  • Ending in –um = ums, -a

    Memorandum, bacterium, datum

  • Ending in –ex = exes, ices

    Index ( indexes for books, indices,used in math)


  • Ending in –ix= -ixes, -ices

  • Appedix ( appendices in books, appendexes in medicine)

  • -on = -ons,-a

  • Criterion, phenomenon

  • Ending in –is = -ises, -es

  • Analysis, hypothesis, synopsis,diagnosis, oasis


Nouns which do not change in the plural
Nouns which do not change in the plural

  • Series and species

    He gave a series of lectures about birdwatching.

    There have been several series of programes on television about microchip technology.

  • Nouns of nationalities ending in –ese

    China, Japan, Portugal

  • Some animals and fish

    Duck, snipe,fishsalmon,piketrout deer


Nouns which look singular but are in fact plural
Nouns which look singular but are in fact plural

  • Cattle,clergy, dice, people, police

  • His cattle are the finestin this part of England

  • Dice are used in many board games


Nouns ending in s which are in fact singular
Nouns ending in –s which are in fact singular

  • News

  • Some diseses

  • Rickets, mumps, measles

  • Some games

  • Billiards,darts,dominos

  • Some activities or branches of study

  • Ceramics, phonetics, politics


Formation of nouns
Formation of Nouns

  • Masculine or feminine

  • Endings to describe size

  • Endings which describe repeated actions and small objects

  • Professions

  • Abstract nouns

  • Gerunds

  • Noun and verb

  • Compound nouns


Masculine or feminine
Masculine or feminine

  • Different words

    Bachelor-spinster, cock-hen,lad-lass,

    Husband-wife, king-queen, uncle-aunt

  • Change of ending

    Actor-actress, duke-duchess, emperor-empress, hero-heroine

  • No distinction

    Cousin friend parent person guest


Endings to describe size
Endings to describe size

  • -let: leaflet, booklet

  • -ling: duckling, weakling

    Sometimes we use adjectives to describe small things like big, little

    -ette: maisonette, kitchenette,

    Mini-: minicab, minicomputer

    Micro-, macro-: microchip macro-economics.


Endings which describe repeated actions or small objects
Endings which describe repeated actions or small objects

  • -inkle: twinkle, winkle

  • -ingle: jingle, tangle, tingle

  • -ggle: giggle, wriggle

  • -tter: mutter stutter, chatter

  • -mble: mumble, stumble,rumble

  • -bble: bubble pebble quibble

  • -ddle: cuddle, muddle, paddle, puddle

  • -ttle: little, tittle-tattle


Professions
Professions

  • -er:

    bake-baker, play-player, teach-teacher, engine-engineer, photograph-photographer

  • -or

    Actor, tailor, doctor, director

  • -ist: piano-pianist, violin-violinist

  • -ologist: geology-geologist

  • -icist: physics-physician


Professions1
Professions

  • -ist: science-scientist

  • -ian

  • Mathematics-mathematician,

  • _ian:

  • History-historian

  • -ant:

  • account-accountant

  • -ent: residence-resident


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