Blood
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Blood. Function. Transport dissolved materials Regulates pH & electrolyte balance in interstitial fluid Restriction of blood loss Stabilizes body temperature Defense against pathogens. Components of Blood. When settled, blood separates into 3 layers Top liquid layer = plasma

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Presentation Transcript

Function
Function

  • Transport dissolved materials

  • Regulates pH & electrolyte balance in interstitial fluid

  • Restriction of blood loss

  • Stabilizes body temperature

  • Defense against pathogens


Components of blood
Components of Blood

  • When settled, blood separates into 3 layers

    • Top liquid layer = plasma

    • Middle layer = “buffy coat” = white blood cells & platelets

    • Bottom solid layer = red blood cells

  • Hematocrit is the % that is cells

    • 45% is average


Origin of cells
Origin of Cells

  • Hematopoietic stem cells in red bone marrow

    • RBCs

    • WBC

  • Thrombopoietin stimulates proliferation of megakaryocytes

    • Break apart into platelets


Platelets
Platelets

  • Aka Thrombocytes

  • Hemostasis = stoppage of bleeding

    • Smooth muscle contracts lessening loss

    • Platelets adhere to rough edges of injury = platelet plug

      • Grab to each other

      • Release serotonin which causes more contraction


Hemostasis
Hemostasis

  • Coagulation = blood clot formation

  • Extrinsic

    • Blood exposed to broken vessels

  • Intrinsic

    • Blood exposed to foreign substance

  • Either triggers a chain of reactions leading to formation of fibrin

    • insoluble protein threads




Red blood cells
Red Blood Cells

  • Aka Erythrocytes

  • 1/3 hemoglobin, rest is water, electrolytes, & enzymes

  • Concave shape increases surface area & provides more access to hemoglobin

  • Transport gases


White blood cells
White Blood Cells

  • Aka leukocytes

  • Protect against disease

  • Can exit vessels via diapedesis and move on their own (amoeboid motion)

  • 5 types; 2 categories

    • Granulocytes: granular cytoplasm

    • Agranulocytes: no granules is cytoplasm


Neutrophils
Neutrophils

  • Fine, light-purple granules

  • Lobed nucleus (2-5 sections)

  • First to arrive at infection site

  • Phagocytize bacteria, fungi, & some viruses


Eosinophil
Eosinophil

  • Coarse, uniform, deep-red granules

  • Bi-lobed nucleus

  • Moderate allergic reactions & defend against parasites


Basophils
Basophils

  • Similar to eosinophils but with irregular, blue granules (often obscure nucleus)

  • Release histamine & heparin

    • Inflammation & clot inhibition to promote blood flow


Monocytes
Monocytes

  • Largest, agranular, variety of nuclear shapes

  • Leave bloodstream and become macrophages

    • Phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, & debris


Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes

  • Similar in size to erythrocytes

  • Agranular, large spherical nucleus, thin ring of cytoplasm

  • T cells

    • Directly attack

  • B cells

    • Produce antibodies


White blood cell count
White Blood Cell Count

  • The proportion of WBCs is a diagnostic tool



Let s do one
Let’s do one…

PARTNERS

  • focus on high power and move slide to top left corner

  • one person scan through and ID the WBCs

  • other person tallies your count

  • once you’ve done 50, switch jobs

    Count a total of 100 cells, and figure the absolute count (aka use percentage counted)


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