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Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman. PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 5: States of Consciousness Karen Huffman, Palomar College. Lecture Overview. Understanding Consciousness Sleep and Dreams Psychoactive Drugs Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness.

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Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

  • Chapter 5: States of Consciousness

  • Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Lecture Overview

  • Understanding Consciousness

  • Sleep and Dreams

  • Psychoactive Drugs

  • Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Understanding Consciousness

  • Consciousness: an organism’s awareness of its own self and surroundings

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Understanding Consciousness

  • Alternate States of Consciousness (ASCs): mental states, other than ordinary waking consciousness, found during sleep, dreaming, psychoactive drug use, hypnosis, etc.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Sleep and Dreams: Circadian Rhythms

  • Circadian Rhythms: biological changes occurring on a 24-hour cycle

    • Our energy level, mood, learning, and alertness all vary throughout the day.

    • Sections of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the pineal gland regulate these changes.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Sleep and Dreams: Circadian Rhythms (Continued)

  • Disrupted circadian rhythms from shift work, jet lag,and sleep deprivation may cause alterations in mood, concentration, motivation, attention, and motor skills.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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What happens to humans and other animals while we sleep and dream?

Pause and Reflect: Critical Thinking

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Sleep and Dreams: dream?Stages of Sleep

  • NREM (Non-Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep:

    • Stage 1 (lightest sleep)

    • Stage 2 (deeper sleep)

    • Stages 3 and 4 (deepest sleep)

  • REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep:

    • Light sleep (also called paradoxical sleep)

  • ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Sleep and Dreams: Stages of Sleep (Continued) dream?

    • NREM (non-REM) sleep:

      • includes Stages 1 through 4

      • involves lower-frequency brain waves, decreased pulse and breathing,and occasional, simple dreams

      • serves a biological need (NREM needs met before REM needs)

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Sleep and Dreams: dream?Stages of Sleep (Continued)

    • REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) sleep:

      • also known as paradoxical sleep.

      • involves high-frequency brain waves, increased pulse and breathing, large muscle .

      • serves a biological need.

      • may play a role in learning and consolidating new memories.

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Sleep and Dreams: dream?Stages of Sleep in a Typical Night

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    The EEG, EOG, and EMG are common tools for sleep research. dream?

    Sleep and Dreams: Research

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Sleep and Dreams: dream?Stages of Sleep & Brain Waves

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Pause and Reflect: dream? Check & Review

    • Judging by the cat’s posture, can you identify the photo showing REM sleep?

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Sleep and Dreams: Over the Life Span dream?

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Sleep and Dreams: Average Daily Hours of Sleep for Different Mammals

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Sleep and Dreams: MammalsWhy Do We Sleep?

    • Repair/Restoration Theory: sleep helps us recuperate from daily activities

    • Evolutionary/Circadian Theory:sleep evolved to conserve energy and as protection from predators

    • Cognitive Theory:dreams improve information processing

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Sleep and Dreams: MammalsWhy Do We Dream?

    • Psychoanalytic Theory: dreams are disguised symbols (manifest versus latent content) of repressed desires and anxieties

    • Biological Theory (activation-synthesis hypothesis): dreams are simple by-products of random stimulation of brain cells

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Sleep and Dreams: Sleep Disorders Mammals

    Two major categories:

    • Dyssomnias: problems in amount, timing, and quality of sleep

    • Parasomnias: abnormal disturbances during sleep

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Sleep and Dreams: MammalsThree Forms of Dyssomnias

    • Insomnia: persistent problems in falling asleep, staying asleep, or awakening too early

    • Sleep Apnea: repeated interruption of breathing during sleep

    • Narcolepsy: sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking hours

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Sleep and Dreams: Narcolepsy in Dogs Mammals

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Sleep and Dreams: MammalsTwo Forms of Parasomnias

    • Nightmares: anxiety-arousing dreams occurring near the end of sleep, during REM sleep

    • Night Terrors: abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense physiological arousal and feelings of panic

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Psychoactive Drugs Mammals

    • Psychoactive Drugs: chemicals that change conscious awareness, mood, or perception

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Psychoactive Drugs: MammalsImportant Terms

    • Drug Abuse: drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the individual or others

    • Addiction: compulsion to use a specific drug or to engage in a certain activity

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Psychoactive Drugs: MammalsImportant Terms

    • Psychological Dependence: desire or craving to achieve effects produced by drug

    • Physical Dependence: bodily processes have been somodified by repeated drug use that continued use is required to prevent withdrawal symptoms

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Psychoactive Drugs: MammalsImportant Terms (Continued)

    • Withdrawal: discomfort and distress experienced after stopping the use of addictive drugs

    • Tolerance: decreased sensitivity to a drug brought about by its continuous use

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Psychoactive Drugs: MammalsFour Categories

    1.Depressants:act on the CNS to suppress bodily processes (e.g., alcohol, valium)

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Psychoactive Drugs: Depressants (Continued) Mammals

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Psychoactive Drugs: Stimulants Psychology in Action (8e)

    2.Stimulants:act on the CNS to increase bodily processes (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, cocaine)

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Pause and Reflect: Psychology in Action (8e) Why Study Psychology?

    • You’ll know how methamphetamine destroys the teeth and gums of chronic users.

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Psychoactive Drugs: Opiates Psychology in Action (8e)

    3.Opiates:act as an analgesic or pain reliever (e.g., morphine, heroin)

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Psychoactive Drugs: Hallucinogens Psychology in Action (8e)

    4.Hallucinogens:

    produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations (e.g., LSD, marijuana)

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Psychology in Action (8e)Club Drug Alert!

    • Popular “Club Drugs”:

      • Date Rape Drug (Rohypnol)

      • MDMA (Ecstasy)

      • GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate)

      • Special K (Ketamine)

      • Crystal Meth (Methamphetamine)

      • LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide)

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Psychoactive Drugs: How They Work Psychology in Action (8e)

    • Step 1). Alter the production or synthesis of neurotransmitters.

    • Step 2). Change the storage or release of neurotransmitters.

    • Step 3). Alter the reception of neurotransmitters.

    • Step 4). Change the deactivation (block the reuptake or break-down) of excess neurotransmitters.

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    How Psychoactive Drugs Work (Step 3: Agonists vs. Antagonists)

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness Psychology in Action (8e)

    • Meditation: group of techniques designed to refocus attention, block out all distractions, and produce an ASC

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Hypnosis: Psychology in Action (8e)trancelike state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus

    Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Hypnosis Psychology in Action (8e)is used to treat chronic pain, severe burns, dentistry, childbirth, psychotherapy.

    Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Pause and Reflect: Psychology in Action (8e) Why Study Psychology?

    • You’ll recognize the following myths about hypnosis:

    • Forced hypnosis

    • Unethical behavior

    • Exceptional memory

    • Superhuman strength

    • Fakery

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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    Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman

    PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

    • End of Chapter 5: States of Consciousness

    • Karen Huffman, Palomar College

    ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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