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Reading Workshop / Presentation. OUTLINE. INTRODUCTIONS VOCABULARY Bottom-Up Theories & Processes PHRASES Top-Down Theories & Processes SENTENCES Interactive Theories & Processes Q & A Discussion. Introductions. Vocabulary. / fɒ .nɪks/ Phonics … /dʒ/, /tʃ/, /ʃ/, /s/ … Phonemes

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Outline
OUTLINE

  • INTRODUCTIONS

  • VOCABULARY

    Bottom-Up Theories & Processes

  • PHRASES

    Top-Down Theories & Processes

  • SENTENCES

    Interactive Theories & Processes

  • Q & A

    Discussion



Vocabulary
Vocabulary

  • /fɒ.nɪks/

    Phonics … /dʒ/, /tʃ/, /ʃ/, /s/ …

  • Phonemes

    /foʊ. nimz/

  • Syllables

  • Stress Placement

  • Decoding


Bottom up reading process
Bottom-Up Reading Process

  • Bottom-Up theorists:

  • Chall, J. S. (1967). Learning to Read: The Great Debate.

  • Gough, P. (1972). One Second of Reading.

  • LaBerge & Samuels, (1974). A Theory of Automatic Information Processing.


Bottom up theories
Bottom-Up Theories

… learning the parts of language (letters) to understanding the whole text (meaning)

Automaticity [/ɔ.toʊ.mæ.tɪ.sɪ.tɪ/]

limited ability to shift attention between the processes of decoding (sounding out words) & comprehending (thinking about meaning)

CASE STUDY 1, H/Os p.3


Word forms
Word Forms

  • VERBS orbit circle include

  • NOUNS ____ ____ ____

  • ADJECTIVES ____ ____ ____

  • ADVERBS ____ ____ ____


Words

Stressed-Syllables

Syllables

Phonemes

Phonics


Left-to-Right Eye Movements

Read the words from left to right. Read at top speed. Can you complete it between 45 to 60 seconds?

Starting time ______

banking banks banked bank banking

emphatic emphasis emphasizes emphasizing emphatic

significant signifying significant signified signifies

pronouncing pronounced pronunciation pronounced pronounce

conversation conversed converse conversing conversed

managed managing manages managed manage

receive receptive receiving received receives

consumed consumption consuming consumer consumes

expected expectancy expects expecting expectancy

beneficial benefitted benefits benefiting beneficial

Finishing time ______

H/Os p. 5 & Activity Sheets 2 to 4


Bottom up theories phonics first reading instruction
Bottom-Up Theories &Phonics-First Reading Instruction

Words

Sound / Symbol Relationships

Meaning


Top down
Top-Down ...

* The words themselves do not have meaning.

* Reading begins with the reader’s knowledge, not print.

* The reader brings personal

meaning to the text

from background

experiences.


Top down or concept driven reading process
Top-Down or Concept-Driven Reading Process

  • Top-Down theorists:

  • Kenneth S. Goodman, (1967). Analysis of Oral Reading Miscues: Applied Psycholinguistics

  • Heckelman, (1969). A Neurological-Impress method of Remedial-Reading Instruction

  • Samuels, (1979). The Method of Repeated Reading.

  • Krashen, (1993). The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research.


A psycholinguistic guessing game
A psycholinguistic guessing game …

  • Read the following text [Page 6 of the Hand-Out Sheets].

    A newspaper is better than a magazine. A sea-shore is a better place than a street. At first it is better to run than to walk. You may have to try several times. It takes some skill, but it’s easy to learn. Even young children can enjoy it. Once successful, complications are minimal. Birds seldom get too close. Rain, however, soaks in very fast. Too many people doing the same thing can also cause problems. One needs lots of room. If there are no complications, it can be very peaceful. A rock will serve as an anchor. If things break loose, however, you will not get a second chance.

    (Bransford and Johnson, 1972)

What is the passage about?

How do you know?


As a fluent reader of English, you probably engaged in the following activities while you were reading:

* Sampling … the text for clues to meaning.

* Predicting …on the basis of the relationship between those clues and what you already know, what the meaning might be and what will come next.

* Testing … this guess by further sampling of the text.

* Confirming …your guess, or rejecting it and seeking another

hypothesis about what the text means.

  • So, which is it …?

  • Riding a bicycle, flying a remote-controlled airplane, or flying a kite?


Top down theories
Top-Down Theories following activities while you were reading:

Knowledge

Experiences

Emotions

Reader’s Intentions

Meaning


Top down tenets
Top-Down Tenets following activities while you were reading:

  • Emphasis is on what prior knowledge and experiences the reader brings to the text.

  • Comprehension begins in the mind of the reader who possesses some ideas about the meaning of the text.

  • Progression is from the whole to part.

    Reader’s prior knowledge to semantic clues to syntactic clues to other more specific information.


Top down reading process
Top-Down Reading Process following activities while you were reading:


Sour, Sweet, Bitter, or Spicy or …? following activities while you were reading:

  • Steak

  • Kiwi fruit

  • Chocolate

  • Oyster omelet

  • Honey

  • Bitter gourd

  • Lemon

  • Ice cream

  • Chili

  • Pepper

  • MSG

(MSG = Monosodium Glutamate, 衛生)

H/Os p.9


Cohesion sub categorized information
Cohesion / Sub-categorized Information following activities while you were reading:

Please number the sentences from 1 to below to form a story of events.

A.___ Since ancient times, people have recognized four basic tastes.

B.___ Ikeda and another man started a company to make MSG.

C.___ About 20 years later in Japan, Kikunae Ikeda was eating a bowl of soup.

D.___ It turns out that the great French chef Escoffier was correct.

E.___ Ikeda continued to work with glutamate.

F.___ It was not until the late 1800s in Paris that a famous chef made a new discovery in taste.

G.___ Ikeda was a food chemist.

H.___ Ikeda’s MSG was a huge commercial success.


Cohesion sub categorized information1
Cohesion / Sub-categorized Information following activities while you were reading:

Please number the sentences from 1 to below to form a story of events.

A._1_ Since ancient times, people have recognized four basic tastes.

B._6_ Ikeda and another man started a company to make MSG.

C._3_ About 20 years later in Japan, Kikunae Ikeda was eating a bowl of soup.

D._8_ It turns out that the great French chef Escoffier was correct.

E._5_ Ikeda continued to work with glutamate.

F._2_ It was not until the late 1800s in Paris that a famous chef made a new discovery in taste.

G._4_ Ikeda was a food chemist.

H._7_ Ikeda’s MSG was a huge commercial success.


Topic sentences
Topic Sentences following activities while you were reading:

  • _____ a) The students were writing their middle semester writing tests furiously so as to finish within the test time of one hour.

  • _____ b) The Japanese student quickly reached up, caught one of the three heavy flies, put it in his mouth and began eating it with satisfaction.

  • _____ c) During this furious writing spree, the Japanese student noticed 3 very fat flies flying lazily above their heads, and he felt hungry.

  • _____ d) The Taiwanese student smiled, reached up, caught the last fly, and asked the Japanese student and the Korean student if they were interested in buying a fat juicy fly for lunch.

  • ____ e) The Korean student saw the satisfied Japanese student chewing on his juicy fly, so he reached up, caught the second fly, put it in his mouth and began eating it hungrily.

  • _____ f) One day last year a Japanese student, a Korean student and a Taiwanese student were hastily writing their middle semester exam.

Answers are in the H/Os p.19


Interactive Bottom-Up with following activities while you were reading:Top-Down Reading Process

  • Interactive Bottom-Up with Top-Down Reading Theorists:

  • Goodman, (1967). Reading: A Psycholinguistic Guessing Game.

  • Rumelhart & Ortony, (1977). The Representation of Knowledge in Memory.

  • Stanovich, (1992). Speculations on the Causes and Consequences of Individual Dfferences in Early Reading Acquisition.

CASE STUDY 2, H/Os p.13


Interactive thought processes
Interactive Thought Processes following activities while you were reading:

  • Ah, … What do I already know about this topic or subject?

  • Let’s see, … If I skim and scan the article, will I find anything that I am familiar with?

  • Hm, … What are some nouns, verbs, and adjectives that I am familiar with?

  • Are these nouns, verbs and adjectives in phrases?


A cloze reading passage
A Cloze Reading Passage following activities while you were reading:

  • What is a Cloze Procedure?

  • A cloze procedure is a technique in which words are deleted from a passage according to a word-count formula or various other criteria.

  • The passage is presented to students, who insert words as they read or hear to complete and construct meaning from the text.

  • This procedure can be used as a diagnostic reading assessment technique.


A cloze reading passage cont
A Cloze Reading Passage cont. following activities while you were reading:

  • What is its purpose?

    It is used:

  • - to identify students' knowledge and understanding of the

  • reading process,

  • - to determine which cueing systems readers effectively employ to

  • construct meaning from print,

- to assess the extent of students' vocabulary and knowledge of a subject,

- to encourage students to monitor for meaning while reading,

- to encourage students to think critically and analytically about text

and content.


Skimming scanning
Skimming & Scanning following activities while you were reading:

Speed Reading for Text / Content Comprehension

Skimming:

* Move your eyes along every line of print without stopping.

* Register / remember what nouns, verbs, adjectives are seen.

* Go back and read the first sentence and the last sentence.

* Do both sentences have or mention the same focus or idea?

Scanning:

* Look for the nouns, verbs, or adjectives or time expressions that

confirm a link between the first and last sentence.


Interactive bottom up with top down reading processes
Interactive Bottom-Up with following activities while you were reading:Top-Down Reading Processes

  • Model of the reading comprehension Process

    The reader processes the text in light of established schemata:

    Cognitive abilities, Background knowledge, Language knowledge, Cultural

    values

    GOT IT!Comprehension !!!

    Schema that matches the data

    The text provides new information to be processed:

    Grapho-phonic information, Syntactic info., Semantic info., Illustrations, Genre information


Reading for fluidity
Reading for Fluidity following activities while you were reading:

When to …

pause,

breathe,

relax,

look at [smile at] and

speak to the audience.


Pausing to breath relax read ahead and look up
Pausing to breath, relax, read ahead and look-up following activities while you were reading:

Ikeda’s MSG was a huge commercial success, but some scientists did not believe umami[uː’mɑːmi] was really a fifth taste. They continued to believe that there were only four tastes. Then, in 2000, almost 100 years after Ikeda’s discovery, scientists found physical proof. The human tongue contains tiny receptors, or taste buds, which allow us to tell the difference between tastes. Scientists found that these receptors responded to glutamate in a special way. In fact, they found that the receptors responded in that way only to glutamate and not to any of the other four tastes.

It turns out that the great French chef Escoffier was right. There are five tastes, not just four. Today, chefs in many parts of the world are using their knowledge of this fifth taste to create a new type of cuisine. The chefs are trying to use less salt and less butter. They are using foods with a lot of natural glutamate. The result is healthy food that is also very tasty. It’s delicious. It’s umami!

Passage taken from:

Read This! Fascinating Stories from the Content Areas. Unit 3, Chapter 8, p.60.

By Daphne Mackey & Alice Savage

Extra H/O


A sample of a reading passage with pause indicators
A sample of a reading passage with pause indicators: following activities while you were reading:

Ikeda’s MSG / was a huge / commercial success, /// but /some scientists / did not believe /umami [uː'mɑːmi]/// was really / a fifth taste. /// They / continued to believe /// that there were / only four tastes. /// Then, /// in 2000, /// almost 100 years / after Ikeda’s discovery, /// scientists / found physical proof. /// The human tongue / contains / tiny receptors, /// or taste buds, /// which allow us / to tell the difference / between tastes. /// Scientists found / that these receptors /// responded to glutamate / in a special way. /// In fact, /// they found / that the receptors /// responded in that way / only to glutamate, /// and not to any / of the other / four tastes. ///

It turns out /// that the great / French chef Escoffier / was right. /// There are / five tastes, /// not just four. /// Today, /// chefs / in many parts / of the world /// are using / their knowledge / of this fifth taste /// to create / a new type / of cuisine. /// The chefs / are trying / to use less salt /and less butter. /// They are / using foods / with a lot of / natural glutamate. /// The result is / healthy food / that is / also very tasty. /// It’s delicious. /// It’s umami! ///

Sample copy in the H/Os p.17


Pre reading preparatory prep procedure
Pre-reading Preparatory, PreP, Procedure following activities while you were reading:

Langer (1981), who introduced this procedure, found that “the three levels of response elicited by the PreP not only help the students to comprehend a text, but greatly facilitate the students’ ability to recall the text after reading”.

  • Select a key word, phrase, or picture from the text which will stimulate group,

  • whole class discussion. (This is not the same as pre-teaching important words

  • from a text. The key word does no even have to appear in the text.) Ask the

  • students to make associations with this word, phrase or picture. List all their

  • associations on the white board.

2. Elicit from the students the reasons for the associations they have made.

This reflecting step activates a network of additional associations; as they

discuss their initial associations, students will be reminded of other

related ideas.

  • Ask the students for additional associations which have come to mind during

  • the discussion and write these on the whiteboard as well.


Q & A following activities while you were reading:


Thank you for your attention… following activities while you were reading:

& attendance!


See you later folks
See you later folks! following activities while you were reading:


Textbooks used in the reading workshop presentation
Textbooks Used in the Reading Workshop / Presentation following activities while you were reading:


  • Extra H/O following activities while you were reading:


Word Forms following activities while you were reading:

  • VERBS orbit circle include

  • NOUNS ____ ____ ____

  • ADJECTIVES ____ ____ ____

  • ADVERBS ____ ____ ____


Bottom up process model
Bottom-Up Process Model following activities while you were reading:


Read following activities while you were reading:


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