Reading Workshop / Presentation. OUTLINE. INTRODUCTIONS VOCABULARY Bottom-Up Theories & Processes PHRASES Top-Down Theories & Processes SENTENCES Interactive Theories & Processes Q & A Discussion. Introductions. Vocabulary. / fɒ .nɪks/ Phonics … /dʒ/, /tʃ/, /ʃ/, /s/ … Phonemes
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Bottom-Up Theories & Processes
Top-Down Theories & Processes
Interactive Theories & Processes
Phonics … /dʒ/, /tʃ/, /ʃ/, /s/ …
…learning the parts of language (letters) to understanding the whole text (meaning)
limited ability to shift attention between the processes of decoding (sounding out words) & comprehending (thinking about meaning)
CASE STUDY 1, H/Os p.3
Left-to-Right Eye Movements
Read the words from left to right. Read at top speed. Can you complete it between 45 to 60 seconds?
Starting time ______
Finishing time ______
H/Os p. 5 & Activity Sheets 2 to 4
Sound / Symbol Relationships
* The words themselves do not have meaning.
* Reading begins with the reader’s knowledge, not print.
* The reader brings personal
meaning to the text
A newspaper is better than a magazine. A sea-shore is a better place than a street. At first it is better to run than to walk. You may have to try several times. It takes some skill, but it’s easy to learn. Even young children can enjoy it. Once successful, complications are minimal. Birds seldom get too close. Rain, however, soaks in very fast. Too many people doing the same thing can also cause problems. One needs lots of room. If there are no complications, it can be very peaceful. A rock will serve as an anchor. If things break loose, however, you will not get a second chance.
(Bransford and Johnson, 1972)
What is the passage about?
How do you know?
* Sampling … the text for clues to meaning.
* Predicting …on the basis of the relationship between those clues and what you already know, what the meaning might be and what will come next.
* Testing …this guess by further sampling of the text.
* Confirming …your guess, or rejecting it and seeking another
hypothesis about what the text means.
Reader’s prior knowledge to semantic clues to syntactic clues to other more specific information.
Sour, Sweet, Bitter, or Spicy or …?
(MSG = Monosodium Glutamate, 衛生)
Please number the sentences from 1 to below to form a story of events.
A.___ Since ancient times, people have recognized four basic tastes.
B.___ Ikeda and another man started a company to make MSG.
C.___ About 20 years later in Japan, Kikunae Ikeda was eating a bowl of soup.
D.___ It turns out that the great French chef Escoffier was correct.
E.___ Ikeda continued to work with glutamate.
F.___ It was not until the late 1800s in Paris that a famous chef made a new discovery in taste.
G.___ Ikeda was a food chemist.
H.___ Ikeda’s MSG was a huge commercial success.
Please number the sentences from 1 to below to form a story of events.
A._1_ Since ancient times, people have recognized four basic tastes.
B._6_ Ikeda and another man started a company to make MSG.
C._3_ About 20 years later in Japan, Kikunae Ikeda was eating a bowl of soup.
D._8_ It turns out that the great French chef Escoffier was correct.
E._5_ Ikeda continued to work with glutamate.
F._2_ It was not until the late 1800s in Paris that a famous chef made a new discovery in taste.
G._4_ Ikeda was a food chemist.
H._7_ Ikeda’s MSG was a huge commercial success.
Answers are in the H/Os p.19
Interactive Bottom-Up with Top-Down Reading Process
CASE STUDY 2, H/Os p.13
It is used:
- to assess the extent of students' vocabulary and knowledge of a subject,
- to encourage students to monitor for meaning while reading,
- to encourage students to think critically and analytically about text
Speed Reading for Text / Content Comprehension
* Move your eyes along every line of print without stopping.
* Register / remember what nouns, verbs, adjectives are seen.
* Go back and read the first sentence and the last sentence.
* Do both sentences have or mention the same focus or idea?
* Look for the nouns, verbs, or adjectives or time expressions that
confirm a link between the first and last sentence.
The reader processes the text in light of established schemata:
Cognitive abilities, Background knowledge, Language knowledge, Cultural
GOT IT!Comprehension !!!
Schema that matches the data
The text provides new information to be processed:
Grapho-phonic information, Syntactic info., Semantic info., Illustrations, Genre information
When to …
look at [smile at] and
speak to the audience.
Ikeda’s MSG was a huge commercial success, but some scientists did not believe umami[uː’mɑːmi] was really a fifth taste. They continued to believe that there were only four tastes. Then, in 2000, almost 100 years after Ikeda’s discovery, scientists found physical proof. The human tongue contains tiny receptors, or taste buds, which allow us to tell the difference between tastes. Scientists found that these receptors responded to glutamate in a special way. In fact, they found that the receptors responded in that way only to glutamate and not to any of the other four tastes.
It turns out that the great French chef Escoffier was right. There are five tastes, not just four. Today, chefs in many parts of the world are using their knowledge of this fifth taste to create a new type of cuisine. The chefs are trying to use less salt and less butter. They are using foods with a lot of natural glutamate. The result is healthy food that is also very tasty. It’s delicious. It’s umami!
Passage taken from:
Read This! Fascinating Stories from the Content Areas. Unit 3, Chapter 8, p.60.
By Daphne Mackey & Alice Savage
Ikeda’s MSG / was a huge / commercial success, /// but /some scientists / did not believe /umami [uː'mɑːmi]/// was really / a fifth taste. /// They / continued to believe /// that there were / only four tastes. /// Then, /// in 2000, /// almost 100 years / after Ikeda’s discovery, /// scientists / found physical proof. /// The human tongue / contains / tiny receptors, /// or taste buds, /// which allow us / to tell the difference / between tastes. /// Scientists found / that these receptors /// responded to glutamate / in a special way. /// In fact, /// they found / that the receptors /// responded in that way / only to glutamate, /// and not to any / of the other / four tastes. ///
It turns out /// that the great / French chef Escoffier / was right. /// There are / five tastes, /// not just four. /// Today, /// chefs / in many parts / of the world /// are using / their knowledge / of this fifth taste /// to create / a new type / of cuisine. /// The chefs / are trying / to use less salt /and less butter. /// They are / using foods / with a lot of / natural glutamate. /// The result is / healthy food / that is / also very tasty. /// It’s delicious. /// It’s umami! ///
Sample copy in the H/Os p.17
Langer (1981), who introduced this procedure, found that “the three levels of response elicited by the PreP not only help the students to comprehend a text, but greatly facilitate the students’ ability to recall the text after reading”.
2.Elicit from the students the reasons for the associations they have made.
This reflecting step activates a network of additional associations; as they
discuss their initial associations, students will be reminded of other
Thank you for your attention…