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Types of Irrigation . Brenton Bartelt. History. Flood irrigation: Channels dug in fields, inefficient Egyptians and Mesopotamians Surface irrigation based off of flooding of Nile River Asia and Europe Diverted water from rivers and streams to fields

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Types of Irrigation

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Types of Irrigation

Brenton Bartelt


History

  • Flood irrigation:

    • Channels dug in fields, inefficient

  • Egyptians and Mesopotamians

    • Surface irrigation based off of flooding of Nile River

  • Asia and Europe

    • Diverted water from rivers and streams to fields

  • Common precipitation used to be a sufficient source of irrigation for crops


Irrigation Methods

  • Surface

    • Flood irrigation

  • Localized

    • Water distributed at low pressure

  • Sprinkler

    • Water distributed through pipes, distributed over field

  • Sub-Irrigation

    • Water directed towards root zone

  • In-ground irrigation

    • Everything buried underground, more presentable


Surface Irrigation

  • Historically most common form

  • Water controlled by dikes, plugged by soil

  • Commonly used in rice fields

    • Split up into section

  • The field water efficiency is 20 to 50 percent.


Localized Irrigation

  • Known as drip irrigation

  • Drips on individual plants

  • Positioned to drip on roots

  • Used in produce production

  • 80 to 60 percent water efficiency


Sprinkler Irrigation

  • water is piped to one or more central locations

  • Sprinklers, spray, guns are permanently mounted

  • Center Pivot or Lateral Move

  • Low Energy Precision Application better applies water

  • Hydraulic or electric powered

    with GPS guidance


Sub-Irrigation

  • Used on crops in high water tables

  • Water comes up from below root zone

  • Used in grasslands or river valleys

  • Combined with drainage infrastructure

  • Used in commercial greenhouse production

  • Ran for 10-2- minutes, water absorbed excess is recycled


In-ground irrigation

  • Commercial and residential systems

  • Divided into zones because of lack of pressure and water

  • Irrigation controller sends signal to turn on or off

  • Smart controller- decides when to water

  • Sprinkler head extends/retracts based on pressure


Water Sources

  • Drawn from rivers or streams

  • Drawn from underground wells

  • Treated waste water

  • Recycled drain water

  • Floodwater harvesting

    • Diverting flood water


Measuring Efficiency

  • Irrigation methods are efficient enough to spread water to an entire field uniformly

  • Field Water Efficiency (%) = (Water Transpired by Crop ÷ Water Applied to Field) x 100


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