Renaissance
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RENAISSANCE. 15TH CENTURY ITALY. SOURCE: A HISTORY OF THE MODERN WORLD – PALMER, COLTON, KRAMER. CHANGES. NEW AND INVIGORATING ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE WORLD. BREAKING DOWN OF MEDIEVAL CERTAINTIES. MIDDLE AGES  RENAISSANCE. RELIGIOUS WORDLY LIFE IS LESS IMPORTANT LIFE OF CONTEMPLATION

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RENAISSANCE

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Renaissance

RENAISSANCE

15TH CENTURY ITALY

SOURCE: A HISTORY OF THE MODERN WORLD – PALMER, COLTON, KRAMER


Changes

CHANGES

  • NEW AND INVIGORATING ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE WORLD

  • BREAKING DOWN OF MEDIEVAL CERTAINTIES


Middle ages renaissance

MIDDLE AGES  RENAISSANCE

  • RELIGIOUS

  • WORDLY LIFE IS LESS IMPORTANT

  • LIFE OF CONTEMPLATION

  • RESPECT FOR POVERTY

  • WORSHIP OF GOD

  • SECULAR

  • LIFE OF INVOLVEMENT AND HUMAN ACTIVITY

  • ENJOYMENT OF WEALTH (BY SOME!)

  • DEMONSTRATION OF HUMAN POWER

  • MAN SHAPED HIS OWN DESTINY

OFTEN A COMBINATION OF ATTITUDES


Rebirth

REBIRTH

  • RE-BIRTH OF GRECO-ROMAN CIVILISATION

  • “NEW” CULTURE WAS NEITHER THEOLOGICAL NOR SCIENTIFIC BUT ASKED WHAT HUMAN BEINGS OUGHT TO BE AND DO:

  • STYLE

  • TASTE

  • DECORUM

  • PERSONAL CHARACTER

  • EDUCATION


City states

CITY-STATES

  • THE BIGGEST AND MOST BUSTLING TOWNS IN EUROPE

  • THESE TOWNS WERE

    INDEPENDENT CITY-STATES:

  • CONTROLLED BY MERCHANT OLIGARCHIES

  • NO KINGS

  • POPES LARGELY ABSENT (WHY?)


Trade

TRADE

  • MERCHANTS MADE FORTUNES IN COMMERCE

  • LENT MONEY TO POPES AND PRINCES

  • MERCHANTS MADE FURTHER FORTUNES AS BANKERS


Florence

FLORENCE

  • CHIEF CITY IN TUSCANY

    (POPULATION 60,000)

  • PRODUCTION OF WOOLENS


Famous people

FAMOUS PEOPLE

  • DANTE

  • PETRARCH

  • BOCCACCIO

  • MACHIAVELLI

  • MEDICI FAMILY


Medici family

MEDICI FAMILY

  • GIOVANNI de MEDICI (1360 – 1429)

    MERCHANT AND BANKER

  • COSIMO de MEDICI (1389 – 1464)

  • LORENZO THE MAGNIFICENT (1449 – 1492)

    De MEDICI FAMILY RULED

    OVER FLORENCE UNTIL

    THE FAMILY DIED OUT IN 1737


Renaissance

ART

ARCHITECTURE

  • SPACE WAS NO LONGER UNKNOWABLE AND DIVINE

  • ADAPTATION OF GRECO-ROMAN ARCHITECTURE

  • GRANDEUR, IMPORTANCE, CONVENIENCE FOR HUMAN USE


Renaissance

ART

SCULPTURE

  • GREEK/ROMAN TRADITION

  • INDEPENDENT AND FREE-STANDING ART

  • (NUDE) HUMAN BEINGS


Renaissance

ART

PAINTING

  • FEW EXAMPLES FROM GRECO-ROMAN TIMES

  • INVENTIONS:

  • PAINTING IN OILS

  • PERSPECTIVE

  • HUMAN ANATOMY

  • MORE EXPRESSION

  • INDIVIDUAL PERSONALITIES


Humanism

HUMANISM

  • RISING INTEREST IN HUMANE LETTERS = WRITING ABOUT MANKIND

  • AS MAIN LIFE’S WORK

  • TO ACHIEVE ARTISTIC EFFECT

  • TO AMUSE THE READER

  • CLASSICAL INFLUENCES => WROTE IN LATIN (AND ITALIAN...FLORENTINE BECOMES STANDARD OF MODERN ITALIAN)

  • WRITING WITHOUT FRAMEWORK OF RELIGIOUS BELIEF

  • STYLE WAS VERY IMPORTANT

  • HISTORICAL WRITING CREATED GROUP IDENTITY

  • NEW CRITICAL ATTITUDE


Education

EDUCATION

  • DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OR LEVELS INTO SEPARATE CLASSES, SEPARTE ROOMS, WITH OWN TEACHER

  • LATIN & GREEK

  • RHETORIC

  • IDEAL RENAISSANCE MAN:

  • WELL-ROUNDED PERSON

  • ABLE TO CONVERSE EASILY

  • KNOWLEDGABLE IN CLASSICAL SUBJECTS

  • PROFICIENT IN SPRTOS AND ARMS

  • ABLE TO DANCE AND APPRECIATE MUSIC

  • WILLING TO SHOW CONSIDERATION FOR OTHERS


Women

WOMEN

  • BY THE AGE OF 18 MARRIED TO OLDER (ESTABLISHED) MEN

  • DIFFERENT AGES REINFORCED GENDER DIVISION:

    MEN => CAREERWOMEN => HOUSEHOLD


Politics

POLITICS

  • NO UNIFICATION OF CITY-STATES

  • WARS FOUGHT WITH CONDOTIERRI (PRIVATE LEADERS OF ARMED BANDS)

  • POLITICS BECAME A TANGLED WEB

  • MACHIAVELLLI THE PRINCE

  • TO CONVINCE ITALIANS OF

    THE NEED TO UNIFY

  • “THE END JUSTIFIES THE MEANS”


6 may 1527 the sacking of rome

6 MAY 1527 – THE SACKING OF ROME

  • ITALY IS DIVIDED AND NOT PREPARED AND IN 1527 A GROUP OF SPANISH AND GERMAN MERCENARIES ATTACK ROME

  • THOUSANDS WERE KILLED

  • POPE IMPRISONED

  • LOOTING AND DESTRUCTION

  • THE GLORIES OF THE RENAISSANCE BEGIN TO FADE AWAY IN ITALY BUT LIVES ON IN THE REST OF EUROPE


Petrarch

*PETRARCH

  • FLORENTINE EXILE

  • FIRST MAN OF LETTERS

  • SON OF A MERCHANT

  • TRAVELLED FRANCE AND ITALY

  • WRITING SHOWS THE COMPLEX, CONTRADICTORY ATTITUDES OF EARLY REN THOUGHT

  • ATRRACTED BY LOVE, LIFE, BEAUTY, TRAVEL

  • ASPIRED LITERARY FAME

  • MORAL PHILOSOPHY

  • WHAT WAS THE GOOD LIFE?


Boccaccio

*BOCCACCIO

  • WROTE DECAMERON IN ITALIAN

  • SCHOLARLY TYPE


Dante

*DANTE

  • WROTE DIVINE COMEDY (IN VERNACULAR)


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