Proposal for standardization of typeface classifications and their mappings
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Proposal for standardization of Typeface classifications and their mappings. Y. Komachi 2013-07-02. 1. Typeface.

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Proposal for standardization of Typeface classifications and their mappings

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Proposal for standardization of typeface classifications and their mappings

Proposal for standardization of Typeface classifications and their mappings

Y. Komachi

2013-07-02


1 typeface

1. Typeface

Font is a collection of character shapes (character representation displayed on a presentation surface, e.g., paper, computer screen, etc.) having the same design. (A set of cast printing types)

Typeface is the design that characterizes a font. Sometimes it is called typeface design or face.

Examples of font (from ISO/IEC 9541-1):

Sha-ken

ISHII FUTO GOTHIC

MIN-CURL

IWAKAGE FUTO GYOSHO


2 purpose of typeface

2. Purpose of typeface

Major part of a document consist of characters, which are rendered to represent their shapes by using font data.

Character strings are rendered as lines on a presentation surface in accordance with an appropriate document style/layout object (heading, paragraph, note, list, and etc.) for easy understanding of document semantics.

In order to identify clearly each style object, several typefaces are employed in a document (e.g., Century Gothic for heading, Century for main text).

A number of typefaces have been developed for many kinds of documents.


3 requirements for typeface classification

3. Requirements for typeface classification

In a former days, specification of an appropriate typeface had been carried out by editing experts of printing companies or publishers.

Today, however, we have document creation tools which can be used by authors as well as editing experts.

Authors are not always experts of typeface and wish to be supported by a suggestion of appropriate typeface selection. Such a support can be done by a typeface classification.


4 typeface classification

4. Typeface classification

  • Typefaces with similar features are grouped and classified. Those classes are represented as a tree structure. Typefaces within a class are often used for the same purpose.

  • Therefore, typeface classification is applied to

  • font selection in a document creation

  • font substitution when there is no specified font

  • harmonized font selection in a multi-lingual document.


5 existing typeface classification and its problems

5. Existing typeface classification and its problems

A typeface classification is shown in ISO/IEC 9541-1 Annex A, Typeface design grouping.

(1) The classification of ISO/IEC 9541-1 is represented by a single three-level hierarchical structure.

However, each country/area has basically its own typeface classification represented by its own multi-level hierarchical structure.

(2) The ISO/IEC 9541-1 includes only Latin, Japanese and a few Arabic typefaces, and describes implicitly typeface mappings.

(3) Typeface mapping should be specified separately between classifications.

(4) Typeface classifications and their mappings should be independent from font architectures and font applications.


6 iso iec jtc1 sc34 planning 1

6. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 planning (1)

In order to solve those problems of the ISO/IEC 9541-1, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 proposed an NP of

TS: Typeface classifications and their mappings, which includes

1 Scope

2 Normative references

3 Terms and definitions

4 Notation

5 Criteria for typeface classification

6 Typeface classifications

6.1 Latin typefaces

6.2 Chinese typefaces

6.3 Japanese typefaces

6.4 Korean typefaces

6.5 Arabic typafaces

6.6 Percian typefaces

6.7 ...

7 Classification mappings


6 iso iec jtc1 sc34 planning 2

6. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 planning (2)

(1) Typeface classification of each country/region is represented by its own node tree and shown in its own clause.

(2) Each National Body is expected to propose its own typeface classification.

(3) Typeface mapping is specified in a separate clause.

(4) The TS is an independent document from the existing ISO/IEC 9541.


7 country specific typeface classifications

7. Country specific typeface classifications

We have the following country specific typeface classifications:

Japanese typeface classification --- SC34/WG2 N454 (IPSJ-TS 0013, clause 5.3)

Korean typefaces classification --- SC34/WG2 N444, Korean typeface classification


8 result of voting on sc 34 n 1861 np on typeface classifications and their mappings

8. Result of voting on SC 34 N 1861, NP on typeface classifications and their mappings:

Q1(Do you accept the proposal?): Yes 8 NBs

Q2(Do you support the addition of the new work item?): Yes 8 NBs

Q3(Do you commit yourself to participate?): Yes 3 NBs < 5 NBs

Many NBs (including CJK) accept and support the proposal and activities on standardization of typeface classifications,

but feel impossibility to dispatch font experts to international meetings.


9 expectation for the cjk site

9. Expectation for the CJK-SITE

In many countries, there are few experts on font/typeface who can participate to ISO meetings.

The CJK-SITE is expected

  • to find and appoint experts on font/typeface at least in China, Japan and Korea, and

  • to ask them to join the discussion for standardization of typeface classifications by e-mail or face-to-face communication.


10 the last discussion in the 12th steering committee meeting

10. The Last discussion in the 12th Steering Committee Meeting

In the last discussion in 2013-04-17, the 12th Steering Committee Meeting, participants identify:

requirements for developing the standard of Typeface classifications and their mappings,

difficulty for typeface experts to participate physically to CJK meetings,

possibility to develop the standard using online or offline document-base discussions.


11 economical support

11. Economical support

In May 2013, METI (Ministry of Economical Trade and Industry) and Y. Komachi discussed a future possibility of METI economical support for developing the standard of typeface classifications.

If getting the support, Y. Komachi and/or his associates will be able to visit to font experts for further detailed discussion to develop the standard.


12 iso standardization 1

12. ISO standardization (1)

Considering the result of voting on SC 34 N 1861, Proposal for a New Work Item on typeface classifications and their mappings:

Q1: Yes 8

Q2: Yes 8

Q3: Yes 3,

many NBs (including CJK) accept and support the proposal and activities on standardization of typeface classifications, but feel impossibility to dispatch font experts to international meetings.

Typeface classifications should be applied not only to CJK documents but to international documents (including Latin documents, Arabic documents, or etc.).

In fact, Germany comments some typeface classifications of Latin fonts in the voting on SC 34 N 1861.


12 iso standardization 2

12. ISO standardization (2)

In order to continue International (including Latin, Arabic, or etc.) discussions on the topic of typeface classifications, CJK-site requests that ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 should have a typeface project, e.g., by using subdivision of the existing ISO/IEC 9541 project.

CJK-site will submit its documents of CJK agreement, via some CJK NC(s), to the ISO project to create an ISO/IEC standard.


13 conclusion draft

13. Conclusion (draft)

(1) CJK-site develops the standard of "Typeface classifications and their mappings" using online or offline document-base discussions by font/typeface experts in CJK countries.

(2) Y. Komachi and/or his associates will be able to visit to font experts in CJK and related countries for further detailed discussion to develop the standard.

(3) CJK-site requests that ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 should have a typeface project, e.g., by using subdivision of the existing ISO/IEC 9541 project.

(4) CJK-site will submit its documents of CJK agreement, via some CJK NC(s), to the ISO project to create an ISO/IEC standard.


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