Proposal for standardization of Typeface classifications and their mappings. Y. Komachi 2013-07-02. 1. Typeface.
Font is a collection of character shapes (character representation displayed on a presentation surface, e.g., paper, computer screen, etc.) having the same design. (A set of cast printing types)
Typeface is the design that characterizes a font. Sometimes it is called typeface design or face.
Examples of font (from ISO/IEC 9541-1):
ISHII FUTO GOTHIC
IWAKAGE FUTO GYOSHO
Major part of a document consist of characters, which are rendered to represent their shapes by using font data.
Character strings are rendered as lines on a presentation surface in accordance with an appropriate document style/layout object (heading, paragraph, note, list, and etc.) for easy understanding of document semantics.
In order to identify clearly each style object, several typefaces are employed in a document (e.g., Century Gothic for heading, Century for main text).
A number of typefaces have been developed for many kinds of documents.
In a former days, specification of an appropriate typeface had been carried out by editing experts of printing companies or publishers.
Today, however, we have document creation tools which can be used by authors as well as editing experts.
Authors are not always experts of typeface and wish to be supported by a suggestion of appropriate typeface selection. Such a support can be done by a typeface classification.
A typeface classification is shown in ISO/IEC 9541-1 Annex A, Typeface design grouping.
(1) The classification of ISO/IEC 9541-1 is represented by a single three-level hierarchical structure.
However, each country/area has basically its own typeface classification represented by its own multi-level hierarchical structure.
(2) The ISO/IEC 9541-1 includes only Latin, Japanese and a few Arabic typefaces, and describes implicitly typeface mappings.
(3) Typeface mapping should be specified separately between classifications.
(4) Typeface classifications and their mappings should be independent from font architectures and font applications.
In order to solve those problems of the ISO/IEC 9541-1, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 proposed an NP of
TS: Typeface classifications and their mappings, which includes
2 Normative references
3 Terms and definitions
5 Criteria for typeface classification
6 Typeface classifications
6.1 Latin typefaces
6.2 Chinese typefaces
6.3 Japanese typefaces
6.4 Korean typefaces
6.5 Arabic typafaces
6.6 Percian typefaces
7 Classification mappings
(1) Typeface classification of each country/region is represented by its own node tree and shown in its own clause.
(2) Each National Body is expected to propose its own typeface classification.
(3) Typeface mapping is specified in a separate clause.
(4) The TS is an independent document from the existing ISO/IEC 9541.
We have the following country specific typeface classifications:
Japanese typeface classification --- SC34/WG2 N454 (IPSJ-TS 0013, clause 5.3)
Korean typefaces classification --- SC34/WG2 N444, Korean typeface classification
Q1(Do you accept the proposal?): Yes 8 NBs
Q2(Do you support the addition of the new work item?): Yes 8 NBs
Q3(Do you commit yourself to participate?): Yes 3 NBs < 5 NBs
Many NBs (including CJK) accept and support the proposal and activities on standardization of typeface classifications,
but feel impossibility to dispatch font experts to international meetings.
In many countries, there are few experts on font/typeface who can participate to ISO meetings.
The CJK-SITE is expected
In the last discussion in 2013-04-17, the 12th Steering Committee Meeting, participants identify:
requirements for developing the standard of Typeface classifications and their mappings,
difficulty for typeface experts to participate physically to CJK meetings,
possibility to develop the standard using online or offline document-base discussions.
In May 2013, METI (Ministry of Economical Trade and Industry) and Y. Komachi discussed a future possibility of METI economical support for developing the standard of typeface classifications.
If getting the support, Y. Komachi and/or his associates will be able to visit to font experts for further detailed discussion to develop the standard.
Considering the result of voting on SC 34 N 1861, Proposal for a New Work Item on typeface classifications and their mappings:
Q1: Yes 8
Q2: Yes 8
Q3: Yes 3,
many NBs (including CJK) accept and support the proposal and activities on standardization of typeface classifications, but feel impossibility to dispatch font experts to international meetings.
Typeface classifications should be applied not only to CJK documents but to international documents (including Latin documents, Arabic documents, or etc.).
In fact, Germany comments some typeface classifications of Latin fonts in the voting on SC 34 N 1861.
In order to continue International (including Latin, Arabic, or etc.) discussions on the topic of typeface classifications, CJK-site requests that ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 should have a typeface project, e.g., by using subdivision of the existing ISO/IEC 9541 project.
CJK-site will submit its documents of CJK agreement, via some CJK NC(s), to the ISO project to create an ISO/IEC standard.
(1) CJK-site develops the standard of "Typeface classifications and their mappings" using online or offline document-base discussions by font/typeface experts in CJK countries.
(2) Y. Komachi and/or his associates will be able to visit to font experts in CJK and related countries for further detailed discussion to develop the standard.
(3) CJK-site requests that ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 should have a typeface project, e.g., by using subdivision of the existing ISO/IEC 9541 project.
(4) CJK-site will submit its documents of CJK agreement, via some CJK NC(s), to the ISO project to create an ISO/IEC standard.