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Drugs. Forensic Science. Introduction. Humans have used drugs of one sort or another for thousands of years -wine was used at least from the time of the early Egyptians -narcotics from 4000 BC -medicinal use of marijuana has been dated to 2737BC in China. Psychological Dependence.

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drugs

Drugs

Forensic Science

introduction
Introduction
  • Humans have used drugs of one sort or another for thousands of years

-wine was used at least from the time of the early Egyptians

-narcotics from 4000 BC

-medicinal use of marijuana has been dated to 2737BC in China

psychological dependence
Psychological Dependence
  • Use of a drug caused by underlying emotional needs.
  • Generally comes from an individuals desire to create a sense of well-being and to escape from realty
physical physiological dependence
Physical (Physiological Dependence)
  • A physical need for a drug brought about by its regular use
  • Characterized by withdrawal sickness when drug is stopped suddenly
types of drugs stimulants
Types of Drugs-Stimulants
  • Drugs that act on the central nervous

system, increase brain activity and heart rate.

  • Some give feelings of alertness, greater

energy and confidence.

  • They may also reduce appetite
examples of stimulants
Examples of Stimulants
  • Cocaine /crack
  • Methamphetamine
  • Ecstasy
  • GHB
  • Amphetamines
  • Nicotine
types of drugs depressants
Types of Drugs-Depressants
  • Drugs that act on the central nervous system and slow down brain activity.
  • Impaired co-ordination, balance and judgement are common.
  • Higher doses can lead progressively to drowsiness, vomiting, coma and even death.
examples of depressants
Examples of Depressants
  • Volatile substances or sniffable substances (eg glues, gases, aerosols)
  • Alcohol
  • Tranquillisers
  • GHB (Gamma hydroxy-butyrate)
types of drugs hallucinogens
Types of Drugs-Hallucinogens
  • Drugs that act to change the way users experience the world through the five senses.
  • Sometimes this involves seeing, and hearing things which aren\'t there.
examples of hallucinogens
Examples of Hallucinogens
  • Cannabis
  • LSD
  • Magic mushrooms/Psilocybin
  • Ketamine
types of drugs narcotics
Types of Drugs -Narcotics
  • Drugs that have a painkilling effect- also known as Analgesics. They work by depressing the central nervous system.

e.g. -heroin

-opium

-morphine

-OxyContin (synthetic opiate)

types of drugs anabolic steroids
Types of Drugs – Anabolic Steroids
  • Drugs that promote muscle growth and increase lean body mass.
  • These drugs mostly have legitimate medical uses
  • They are often misused by those wishing to enhance their athletic performance or strength.
statistics
Statistics
  • The following statistics are from the results of a major national survey of secondary schoolchildren aged 11-15 published by the Department of Health (DH) in 2002.
slide15
12% of pupils had used illegal drugs in the last month and 20% had used illegal drugs in the last year
  • 13% of boys reported taking drugs in the last month compared to 11% of girls
  • Use increased with age. Six percent of 11-year-olds had used drugs in the last year compared to 39% of 15-year-olds
slide16
Cannabis is the most likely drug to have been used, with 13% of pupils reporting use in the last year.
  • Cannabis use also increases sharply with age with 1% of 11-year-olds having used the drug in past year compared with 31% of 15-year-olds
  • Class A drugs had been used by 4% of 11-15 year olds. One percent say they used heroin or cocaine
risks of using drugs
Risks of Using Drugs
  • Risks vary according to:

-circumstances of the use

-the motivation and knowledge level of the user

-their mood and expectation at the time of use

-the manner of use

-size of dose

-purity of the sample

risks factors involved in drug taking
Risks Factors Involved in Drug Taking
  • Users can never be sure of exactly what they are taking
  • Not knowing the strength of what has been bought could lead to an accidental overdose (which may be life-threatening)
  • Users can\'t be precisely sure of the effect the drug will have, even if they have taken it before.
slide19
Sharing dirty needles or syringes carries a risk of serious infections
  • Mixing drugs, or drugs with alcohol
  • Getting a criminal record.
  • Effects on relationships, financial pressures, reducing judgement or performance etc.
class a drugs
Class A Drugs
  • Amphetamines (speed) - if prepared for injection
  • Cocaine and crack
  • Ecstasy
  • Heroin
  • LSD (acid)
  • Magic mushrooms - if prepared for use.
possession of class a drugs
Possession of Class A Drugs
  • Possession:

-seven years prison and/or a fine

  • Possession with intentto supply

-life imprisonment and/or a fine

class b drugs
Class B Drugs
  • Amphetamines (speed)
  • Possession

-five years prison and/or a fine

  • Possession with intent to supply

-14 years prison and/or a fine

class c drugs
Class C Drugs
  • Anabolic steroids
  • Cannabis
  • Mild amphetamines
  • GBH
  • Tranquillisers DF 118 (painkillers)
possession of class c drugs
Possession of Class C Drugs
  • Possession

-two years prison and/or a fine

  • Possession with intent to supply

-14 years prison and/or a fine

useful websites
Useful Websites
  • http://www.mindbodysoul.gov.uk/drugs/drugmenu.html
  • http://www.sorted4.info/html/400/430.html
  • http://www.stonerlemmings.com
  • http://www.lifebytes.gov.uk/drugs/drugs_facts.html
slide26

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