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Drugs. Forensic Science. Introduction. Humans have used drugs of one sort or another for thousands of years -wine was used at least from the time of the early Egyptians -narcotics from 4000 BC -medicinal use of marijuana has been dated to 2737BC in China. Psychological Dependence.

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Drugs

Drugs

Forensic Science


Introduction
Introduction

  • Humans have used drugs of one sort or another for thousands of years

    -wine was used at least from the time of the early Egyptians

    -narcotics from 4000 BC

    -medicinal use of marijuana has been dated to 2737BC in China


Psychological dependence
Psychological Dependence

  • Use of a drug caused by underlying emotional needs.

  • Generally comes from an individuals desire to create a sense of well-being and to escape from realty


Physical physiological dependence
Physical (Physiological Dependence)

  • A physical need for a drug brought about by its regular use

  • Characterized by withdrawal sickness when drug is stopped suddenly


Types of drugs stimulants
Types of Drugs-Stimulants

  • Drugs that act on the central nervous

    system, increase brain activity and heart rate.

  • Some give feelings of alertness, greater

    energy and confidence.

  • They may also reduce appetite


Examples of stimulants
Examples of Stimulants

  • Cocaine /crack

  • Methamphetamine

  • Ecstasy

  • GHB

  • Amphetamines

  • Nicotine


Types of drugs depressants
Types of Drugs-Depressants

  • Drugs that act on the central nervous system and slow down brain activity.

  • Impaired co-ordination, balance and judgement are common.

  • Higher doses can lead progressively to drowsiness, vomiting, coma and even death.


Examples of depressants
Examples of Depressants

  • Volatile substances or sniffable substances (eg glues, gases, aerosols)

  • Alcohol

  • Tranquillisers

  • GHB (Gamma hydroxy-butyrate)


Types of drugs hallucinogens
Types of Drugs-Hallucinogens

  • Drugs that act to change the way users experience the world through the five senses.

  • Sometimes this involves seeing, and hearing things which aren't there.


Examples of hallucinogens
Examples of Hallucinogens

  • Cannabis

  • LSD

  • Magic mushrooms/Psilocybin

  • Ketamine


Types of drugs narcotics
Types of Drugs -Narcotics

  • Drugs that have a painkilling effect- also known as Analgesics. They work by depressing the central nervous system.

    e.g. -heroin

    -opium

    -morphine

    -OxyContin (synthetic opiate)


Types of drugs anabolic steroids
Types of Drugs – Anabolic Steroids

  • Drugs that promote muscle growth and increase lean body mass.

  • These drugs mostly have legitimate medical uses

  • They are often misused by those wishing to enhance their athletic performance or strength.


Statistics
Statistics

  • The following statistics are from the results of a major national survey of secondary schoolchildren aged 11-15 published by the Department of Health (DH) in 2002.


  • 12% of pupils had used illegal drugs in the last month and 20% had used illegal drugs in the last year

  • 13% of boys reported taking drugs in the last month compared to 11% of girls

  • Use increased with age. Six percent of 11-year-olds had used drugs in the last year compared to 39% of 15-year-olds


  • Cannabis is the most likely drug to have been used, with 13% of pupils reporting use in the last year.

  • Cannabis use also increases sharply with age with 1% of 11-year-olds having used the drug in past year compared with 31% of 15-year-olds

  • Class A drugs had been used by 4% of 11-15 year olds. One percent say they used heroin or cocaine


Risks of using drugs
Risks of Using Drugs of pupils reporting use in the last year.

  • Risks vary according to:

    -circumstances of the use

    -the motivation and knowledge level of the user

    -their mood and expectation at the time of use

    -the manner of use

    -size of dose

    -purity of the sample


Risks factors involved in drug taking
Risks Factors Involved in Drug Taking of pupils reporting use in the last year.

  • Users can never be sure of exactly what they are taking

  • Not knowing the strength of what has been bought could lead to an accidental overdose (which may be life-threatening)

  • Users can't be precisely sure of the effect the drug will have, even if they have taken it before.



Class a drugs
Class A Drugs infections

  • Amphetamines (speed) - if prepared for injection

  • Cocaine and crack

  • Ecstasy

  • Heroin

  • LSD (acid)

  • Magic mushrooms - if prepared for use.


Possession of class a drugs
Possession of Class A Drugs infections

  • Possession:

    -seven years prison and/or a fine

  • Possession with intentto supply

    -life imprisonment and/or a fine


Class b drugs
Class B Drugs infections

  • Amphetamines (speed)

  • Possession

    -five years prison and/or a fine

  • Possession with intent to supply

    -14 years prison and/or a fine


Class c drugs
Class C Drugs infections

  • Anabolic steroids

  • Cannabis

  • Mild amphetamines

  • GBH

  • Tranquillisers DF 118 (painkillers)


Possession of class c drugs
Possession of Class C Drugs infections

  • Possession

    -two years prison and/or a fine

  • Possession with intent to supply

    -14 years prison and/or a fine


Useful websites
Useful Websites infections

  • http://www.mindbodysoul.gov.uk/drugs/drugmenu.html

  • http://www.sorted4.info/html/400/430.html

  • http://www.stonerlemmings.com

  • http://www.lifebytes.gov.uk/drugs/drugs_facts.html


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