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The Coagulant and Flocculant for alternative. Present to Provincial Waterworks Authority By Behn Meyer Techno-Chemical. Behn Meyer Group Since 1840. Group History Behn Meyer today Behn Meyer Thailand Behn Meyer Chemical (T) Co., Ltd. Behn Meyer Techno-Chemicals (T) Co., Ltd.

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The Coagulant and Flocculant for alternative

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The Coagulant and Flocculant for alternative

Present to

Provincial Waterworks Authority


Behn Meyer Techno-Chemical

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Behn Meyer GroupSince 1840

  • Group History

  • Behn Meyer today

  • Behn Meyer Thailand

  • Behn Meyer Chemical (T) Co., Ltd.

  • Behn Meyer Techno-Chemicals (T) Co., Ltd.

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1. Group History

  • Milestones

    • 1840 founded as Behn Meyer & Co. in Singapore

    • 1857 foundation of Arnold Otto Meyer in Hamburg

    • 1914 Singapore, Malaya, Indonesia, China, Phillipines,

    • 1955 re-incorporated in Singapore as Behn Meyer & Co. (Pte.) Ltd.

    • 2001 Arnold Otto Meyer re-named Behn Meyer (D) Holding AG &Co

  • Milestones Behn Meyer Thailand

    • 1907 founded under the name of Behn Meyer & Co.

    • 1978 foundation of Behn Meyer Engineering Co., Ltd.

    • 1982 foundation of Behn Meyer & Co. (T) Ltd.

    • 2002 foundation of Behn Meyer Chemical (T) Co. Ltd.

    • 2007 BME re-named Behn Meyer Techno-chemicals (T)

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The focus of the group today is on the supply and distribution of specialty products, representing worldclass manufacturers or from its own production.

2. Behn Meyer today

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2. Behn Meyer today

The group‘s business lines can be categorized into three main groups:

Chemical Agricare Trading

  • Countries

    • Singapore

    • Malaysia

    • Thailand

    • Indonesia

    • Vietnam

  • Myanmar

  • Cambodia

  • Germany

  • The Netherlands

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3. Behn Meyer Thailand

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  • The new alternative coagulantfor water treatment

    Aluminum Chlorohydrate


    Gulbrandsen Technologies,Inc

    Clinton,NJ 08809 USA

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What Are Coagulants ?

Coagulants are chemicals, typically salts of iron or aluminum, that cause suspended solids in water to agglomerate into larger particles which can then be removed by physical separation methods.

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Aluminum Sulfate (alum)

Aluminum Chloride

Ferric Sulfate

Ferric Chloride


Polyaluminum Salts



Silica Sulfates


Polymer Blends

Common Coagulants

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Typical coagulants

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Aluminum Chlorohydrate

  • ACH is a highly conc.Solution of polyaluminum hydroxychloride by having a highest Al conc. ( 23% Al2O3 )

  • The basicity of ACH at 83% is also the highest available for any polyaluminum based solution.

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Aluminum Chlorohydrate

  • The highly polymerized species in ACH have much higher cationic charge than Aluminum in standard salt.

  • ACH can offer both higher level of performance and lower dosages.

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PAC / ACH Basicity

  • The polymeric aluminum species present are determined by the degree of neutralization, which is usually reported as BASICITY:

    % Basicity= [OH] / (3 x [Al]) x 100

  • BASICITY (polymerization) is increased by replacing chloride ions with hydroxyl ions during manufacturing.

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Why PACl or ACH?

  • The primary functional benefit of PACl’s / ACH vs traditional coagulants like Alum is the higher charge on the aluminum.

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Objective of Coagulant

“ The Goal of using Coagulants in Water Treatment is the removal of Suspended Solids and soluble and insoluble organic material.”

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Suspended Solid

Suspended Solids are stable in solution due to small size / low density and negative surface charge.

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Effects of Solids

Potable Water

  • Turbidity

  • Taste & Odor

  • Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    Waste Water

  • TSS - Total Suspended Solids

  • Corrosion (Erosive and biological)

  • Insoluble BOD

  • Insoluble Phosphorus

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  • Organic acids; humic acid, fluvic acid, etc.

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Surface Charge

Negative Surface charges on particles help stabilize them in aqueous solution.

The higher the charge to surface area ratio, the more stable the particle

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Particle Size Matters

Particle Classificationmmmm/s


Coarse Sand0.4 42

Sand0.1 8.0

Fine Sand0.020.62

Silt0.004 0.025

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What are the Benefit of the Polymerization in PAC / ACH?

  • Increasing polymerization means Higher Cationic charge.

  • The aluminum maintains its charge in water longer and over a wider range of conditions.

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1: Benefit of Higher Charge

  • Higher Charge means more effective Charge Neutralization:

    Schultz -Hardy Rule:

    C = k / Z6

    C = Concentration, Z = Charge, k = constant

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Schultz-Hardy Rule Predictions

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Shultz-Hardy Rule

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Schultz-Hardy Theory vs. Real Life Application

  • Real Life: Other factors effect the charge neutralization mechanism; pH, Temperature, Hydrolysis

  • The bottom line is that the higher charge on the aluminum in PACl or ACH allows it to coagulate more solids with a lower dose than a simple aluminum or iron salt.

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2: Benefit of Longer Lasting Charge

The aluminum chloride complex stays soluble longer than an aluminum sulfate ion

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Steps in the Coagulation Process - Simple Metal Salts

  • Charge Neutralization - Positive Charge on Coagulant eliminates negative charge on particles - Minimal impactdue to time factor: 10-4 seconds

  • Coagulant forms hydroxide which has a larger physical structure.

  • Mixing causes particles to collide and they begin to agglomerate.

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How Do Traditional Coagulants Work?

When simple Aluminum (or Iron) salts are added to water, they produce a positively charged ion:

Al2(SO4)3 >>>>>> 2 Al3+ + 3 SO42-

The positive charge can destabilize the negative surface charge on suspended particles.

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How Do Traditional Coagulants remove TOC?

Alum, for example, must be added until the pH falls into the range where the aluminum ion is soluble (< 5) and then removes the organic acid through charge neutralization.

Ferric chloride sometimes operates at pH < 4.

The problem is that the pH must be brought back up.

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Coagulation with PAC/ACH

  • The charge neutralization with simple aluminum or iron coagulants happens very rapidly; 10-4 seconds.

  • The Charge neutralization with PAC/ACH occurs over a much larger time frame – giving more time for the higher charge to destabilize the particles

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Polyaluminum Coagulants

  • The complex structure of Polyaluminum Chlorides are stable in water in the pH range where aluminum typically forms aluminum hydroxide.

  • The charge on the complex is then available for direct interaction with the surface charges on the particles.

  • The structure of the complex remains as part of the floc, forming a smaller but denser floc than aluminum hydroxide.

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Steps in the Coagulation Process - Polyaluminum Products

  • Charge Neutralization - Positive Charge on Polyaluminum Complex eliminates negative charge on particles - Primary mechanism for reaction

  • Polyaluminum Complex is bonded to the particle which helps to build floc mass though continued agglomeration

  • Mixing causes particles to collide and they begin to agglomerate.

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Why ACH works more Effectively

  • More of the higher charge actually goes to charge neutralization. This means less is required to remove solids.

  • Also, in the case of TOC, a large drop in pH is not required because the aluminum stays soluble long enough to destabilize the organic acids.

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Key Benefits of Polyaluminum Coagulants

  • LOWER DOSE - Higher Charge on Aluminum means less is needed.

  • Typical reductions in aluminum dose are

    • 30 - 60% for potable water, Higher for waste waters

  • SLUDGE REDUCTION - Lower dosage translate to less sludge, Polyaluminum sludges are easier to dewater.

  • LESS pH ADJUSTMENT REQUIRED - pH is impacted less than with traditional coagulants

  • BETTER PERFORMANCE - Higher removal rates and wider working pH range

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The new organic coagulant and flocculant


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Renewable resources  Forest

Without change the water characteristics

Patented product and manufacturing process

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  • Base on South part of Brazil, since 1948 of producing vegetable tannin extract

  • From 260 sq.kmof land, 60 million renewable trees, the company export to 70 countries, in total 30,000 tons of Tannin extract and 500,000 tons of woodchip per year.

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No effluent discharge

Scrubbers in the Chaminees with close loop/cycle

Filtration / separation of ash

Spent bark fuels the boiler (energy conservation)

Excess residues : ash + spent bark = organic fertilizer

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Hoverth ( 1981) gave one of the most satisfactory definitions of tannin :

“Any phenolic compound of sufficiently high molecular weight containing sufficiently hydroxyls and other suitable group ( i.e. carboxyl ) to form effectively strong complexes with protein and other macromolecules under the particular environmental condition being studies “

Tannin can complex with Proteins, Starch, Cellulose, and Minerals.

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Organic Cationic Vegetable Polymer

Non toxic, Low molecular weight

Easy solution


Consumed on the sludge

Does not change the pH

Act on a wide pH range

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  • In colloidal systems, Tanfloc neutralises charges, unstabilizing them, producing flocculant and causing their sedimentation

  • Tanfloc chelates matellic ions dissolved in the water thus helping to reduce he medium’s degree of conductivity

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Tanfloc can be used as the primary coagulant or as an auxiliary flocculation agent , being compatible with most of products sold on the market for this purpose

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Quaternary ammonium tannate monomer

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Quaternary ammonium tannate polymerized

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Chelating characteristic

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Chelating characteristic


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TANFLOC- Flocs Form

An irregular form , presenting a larger surface area than other flocculants with round flocs. This enable more efficient clarification with minor turbidity in final treated water

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TANFLOC - Sedimentation

  • Up to the floc size proportionally, small flocs result slower but more efficient clarification and obtained when dosage is too low.

  • Large floc always faster rate but clarifiction is not always satisfactory because of reduced surface area contact.

  • Formation of medium size flocs provides the optimum rate of sedimentation and clarification efficiency

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TANFLOC - Sludge

The sludge generate from water treatment with TANFLOC is organicand is notof environmental concern like Aluminum based flocculants. TANFLOC sludge can therefore be used as an agricultural organic compost.

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TANFLOC - Chlorinating

  • Base on organic product of vegetable origin, the use of chlorine should be restricted to the final stage of water treatment after sedimentation.

  • In contact with Chlorine will reduce its efficiency and result of formation of undesirable chlorination by- products

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TANFLOC - Main Fields:

Waste water:





Pulp and paper

Drinking water

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Behn Meyer Techno-Chemicals(T) Co.,ltd.189 Moo 6 Bangkok-Chonburi( New highway)Rd. Tabyao, Ladkrabang, Bangkok , THAILAND 10520tel. 0 2327 9800fax 0 2360 6076


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