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Rob O’Neill, PhD, BCBA-D Leanne S. Hawken, PhD Dept. of Special Education, Univ. of Utah PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Thinking Functionally About Problem Behavior: Prevention Strategies for Creating Positive Classroom Environments. Rob O’Neill, PhD, BCBA-D Leanne S. Hawken, PhD Dept. of Special Education, Univ. of Utah [email protected] Overview. Components of a successful classroom

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Rob O’Neill, PhD, BCBA-D Leanne S. Hawken, PhD Dept. of Special Education, Univ. of Utah

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Rob o neill phd bcba d leanne s hawken phd dept of special education univ of utah

Thinking Functionally About Problem Behavior: Prevention Strategies for Creating Positive Classroom Environments

Rob O’Neill, PhD, BCBA-D

Leanne S. Hawken, PhD

Dept. of Special Education, Univ. of Utah

[email protected]


Overview

Overview

  • Components of a successful classroom

  • How to think functionally about behavior

  • Antecedent, Behavior, & Consequences

  • Antecedent Interventions

  • Behavior management traps


Rob o neill phd bcba d leanne s hawken phd dept of special education univ of utah

Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students


Components of a successful classroom see handout

Components of a Successful Classroom (See Handout)

  • Are the classroom rules/expectations posted (3 – 5 rules, positively stated)?

  • Have the rules/expectations been systematically taught and reviewed?

  • Are positive consequences/rewards to acknowledge following classroom expectations posted and consistently implemented?

  • Are negative consequences/punishments to address students who are not following classroom expectations posted and consistently implemented?

  • Is a dailyclass schedule posted large enough for all students to see?


Components of a successful classroom see handout1

Components of a Successful Classroom (See Handout)

  • Do you implement at least a 4:1 ratio of positive to negative consequences for academic and behavioral responses?

  • Have classroom routines been established and systematically taught (e.g., procedures to go to the bathroom, get help from the teacher)?

  • Are transitions between activities structured

  • Is unstructured time kept to a minimum?

  • Is the academic material presented at the students’ instructional level? How do you know?

  • Are you monitoring the students’ academic and behavioral performance by circulating among students?


Common behavior management traps

Common Behavior Management Traps

  • “Passionate” Discipline Trap

  • Too General Trap

  • Cure-All Trap

  • Preaching/Moralizing Trap

  • Questioning Trap (vs. requests)

  • Negative Criticism Trap

  • “I Must Win Them Over” Trap


Explanations of human behavior

Explanations of Human Behavior

Biophysical Explanations

  • Genetic and hereditary effects

  • Biochemical explanations

  • Brain damage

    Developmental Explanations

  • Psychoanalytic Theory

  • Stage Theory of Cognitive Development

    Behavioral Explanations

  • Obtain pleasant/desirable consequences & avoid/escape unpleasant consequences


Focus on what we can change

Focus on what we can change

  • Wecannot prescribe medication

  • We cannot change the students previous experiences

  • We often cannot change the parenting practices in the home

  • Some venting is good, but too often it takes over leading to less productive meetings, instruction & supports for students

    There is a LOT we can do in the classroom to Change student problem behavior

    This starts with student learning……


How to use behavioral explanation to determine why students are acting out

How to Use Behavioral Explanation to Determine Why Students Are Acting Out

Functional Behavioral Assessment Defined

  • Examining the environment to determine the function problem behavior serves or-

  • What does the student get out of continuing to engage in the problem behavior?

  • Two main reasons students act out

    • Obtain something desirable

    • Avoid something unpleasant


The abc s of behavior

The ABC’s of Behavior:

  • Understanding the function of behavior is the first step in changing the behavior.

  • Understanding comes from repeated observation of:

    A– Antecedent (stimulus before the behavior)

    B – Behavior (the observable and measurable act)

    C – Consequence (what occurred after the act to maintain or increase frequency)


Abc s of understanding behavior

ABC’s of Understanding Behavior

  • Understanding the function of behavior is the first step in changing the behavior.

  • Understanding comes from repeated observation of:

    • What happens before (A or antecedent) the behavior occurs?

    • What is the behavior (B)?

    • What happens after (C or consequence) the behavior occurs?

      A  B  C


Rob o neill phd bcba d leanne s hawken phd dept of special education univ of utah

Behavioral Function

Obtain Desirable Events

Obtain Internal/

Private Stimulation

Obtain External/

Socially Mediated

Stimuli

Objects/

Activities

Attention

*Daydreaming

*Visual stimulation

*Body movements

*Endorphins?

*Smiles/hugs

*Frowns/reprimands

*Talking/interaction

*Preferred activity

*Toys/food/games

*Money?


Rob o neill phd bcba d leanne s hawken phd dept of special education univ of utah

Behavioral Function

Avoid/Escape Undesirable Events

Avoid/Escape Internal/

Private Events

Avoid/Escape External/

Socially Mediated

Things/Events

Attention

Tasks/Events

*Anxiety

*Depression

*Anger

*Hunger

*Fatigue

*Illness

*Medication

effects

*Smiles/hugs

*Frowns/reprimands

*Talking/interaction

*Task demands

*Difficult tasks

*Changes in routine

*Interruptions of

desired activities


Nonexamples of problem behavior functions

Nonexamples of Problem Behavior Functions

  • Power

  • Repressed Anger

  • Paybacks

  • Because they have ADHD (or some other label)


Case study juan

Case Study: Juan

  • Fourth-grade general education classroom plus reading tutor

  • Over 5 discipline referrals resulting in in-school suspension in recent months

  • In-school suspension is held in the principal’s office with principal. He will complete his work when sitting next to principal at her desk.

  • Referrals were usually the result of extremely disruptive behavior in the classroom (e.g., hiding under desks, crying loudly, throwing papers and school supplies).

  • Disruptive behaviors occur at times when student is expected to work on his own

  • Difficulty staying on task, unless he receives frequent redirection or praise from the teacher.

  • Recent assessments indicate work is not too difficult for him.

  • Consistently seeks and enjoys praise from any adult figure.


Case study juan1

Case Study: Juan

AntecedentBehaviorConsequence

Individual workTantrum Referral to office

Function

When Juan is expected to do individual seatwork, he attempts to gain attention by having a tantrum in class. This strategy works for him because he is sent to the principal’s office where he is required to have a one-to-one discussion with the principal.

Function = Adult attention


Setting events se

Setting Events (SE)

  • Environmental events that have an indirect impact on problem behavior

  • MOMENTARILY changes the value of the reward or punishment

  • Either increase or decrease the likelihood that a behavior will occur

  • Can be removed in time or occur at the same time as the antecedent

    Setting Events Antecedents BehaviorConsequence


Examples of setting events

Examples of Setting Events

  • Missing breakfast

  • Crowding in the cafeteria

  • Having a fight on the way to school

  • Bad grade on a test

  • Substitute teacher

  • Forgetting to take allergy medication


Nonexamples of setting events

Nonexamples of Setting Events

  • Disability Labels

    • ADHD

    • ED

    • Autism

  • Events that do not alter value or rewards/punishers

    • Hair color


Rob o neill phd bcba d leanne s hawken phd dept of special education univ of utah

ABC

TeacherStudent Teacher

RequestThrow pencilRepeats Request

TeacherStudent Teacher

Repeats Tips Desksays “go

Request Overto timeout”

“Go to Student FlipsStudent

Time out”Teacher offsent to office


Rob o neill phd bcba d leanne s hawken phd dept of special education univ of utah

Angela, a 8th grade student, came to school very angry. Her parents had been having a heated argument, and they both turned their anger on Angela right before she left the house. Shortly after arriving in to school, Angela’s teacher told her that her shirt, which contained a sexually explicit slogan on the back, was in very poor taste and that she must go and change it immediately (this is a pattern - she has come to school on several occasions dressed inappropriately). Angela responded by yelling at the teacher and refusing to change the shirt. Her friends laughed and cheered Angela’s defiance. The teacher told Angela to go to the office.


What are the following

What are the following?

  • Setting Events

  • Antecedent?

  • Behavior?

  • Consequence?

  • Function?


Case study angela

Case Study: Angela

Setting Events

  • Arguing at home between parents and between Angela and her parents

    Setting Event Strategies?

  • How to make behavior less likely to occur


  • Case study angela1

    Case Study: Angela

    Antecedent

    • Verbal reprimand by the teacher concerning the shirt

      Antecedent Strategies?


    Case study angela2

    Case Study: Angela

    Teaching/promoting positive skills and/or behaviors

    • What replacement behaviors to teach?

      • Replacement Behs = Behaviors to be taught to the student that serve the same function as the inappropriate behavior(s). Replacement behaviors provide the student with a socially appropriate means to meet their needs without having to resort to problem behaviors


    Case study angela3

    Case Study: Angela

    • Positive and reductive consequences

      • What positive consequence will she get if she engages in appropriate behavior?

      • What negative consequence will be applied if she engages in inappropriate behavior?


    Proactive antecedent strategies

    Proactive/Antecedent Strategies

    Things to Try to Prevent Problem Behavior


    Antecedent interventions to prevent problem behavior

    Antecedent Interventions to Prevent Problem Behavior

    • Often helpful when you can’t give student what he or she is wants (i.e., attention, escape) and is using problem behavior to get (“You can’t always get what you want”, Rolling Stones, 19__?)

      • Student tantrums because he does not like transitions

        • Cannot allow him to not be involved in transitions

      • Student screasm to get teacher/adult attention

        • Cannot work one on one all the time with this student

      • A  B  C

    Focus Here


    Reduce eliminate antecedents predictors for behaviors

    Reduce/eliminate antecedents/ predictors for behaviors?

    • Curricular Variables

      • What variables INCREASE likelihood of problem behavior?

      • 1.

      • 2.

      • 3.

      • 4.


    Reinforcement related strategies

    Reinforcement-related strategies

    • Premack Principle/Grandma’s Rule

    • State the reward ahead of time

    • What does student do in free time?

      • Use it as a reinforcer/reward


    Instructional interactional strategies

    Instructional/interactional strategies

    • Precorrection (reminder/ rehearsal)

    • “Remember before we…….

    • “What’s does “being respectful” look like in assemblies?

    • “Remember- what are you

      going to say if a student

      calls you a bad name”


    Offering choices

    Offering choices

    • Lots of different opportunities

    1) Math

    2) Spelling

    3) Job

    4) ???


    Immediate antecedent assistance

    Immediate antecedent assistance

    • “Jumping in” before the problem occurs...


    Behavioral momentum

    Behavioral momentum

    • High probability request =

      • Sudent is likely to comply, it is easy for the student

      • “Put your name on your paper, get your books out, Open books to page 126”

    • Low probability request =

      • Student is NOT likely to comply, it is harder or student does not want to

      • “Devin, please read the first paragraph”

    • Behavioral Momentum = Several HIGH probability requests are followed by a LOW probability requests. Goal is to increase compliance

    Hi-pHi-pHi-pLow-p


    Preferred item as a distractor

    Preferred Item as a Distractor


    Collaborative activity

    Collaborative activity


    Developing tolerance for delay of desired outcome reward

    Developing tolerance for delay of desired outcome/reward

    Tolerance to Delay

    • “Almost done” cue (delay cue)

    • Release (safety) signal


    Tolerance to delay

    Tolerance to Delay

    Release

    signal

    Almost done

    cue

    Begin task

    engagement

    Time


    Big ideas

    Big Ideas

    • Always determine “why” a student is engaging in problem before intervening.

    • Intervene early - before the problem behavior occurs

      • Focus on antecedent interventions

    • Review “Behavior Management Traps” often

    • If what you are doing is not working, change it!


    Rob o neill phd bcba d leanne s hawken phd dept of special education univ of utah

    Thanks for your time and attention!

    [email protected]


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